Glascock, J. (2001). Gender roles on prime-time network television: Demographics and behaviors. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 45(4), 656-669. Retrieved from


This peer-reviewed article seeks to evaluate gender roles on Prime-Time Network Television, including children’s programming and soap operas. Types of characters included single women, working women and women with determinable occupations. This article focuses on prime-time fictional programming (comedies and dramas) and includes all characters with speaking parts. It demonstrated that the males outnumbered females among main characters and speaking time by the ratio of 1.7 to 1. It also showed that in creative personnel behind the scenes such as producers, directors, writers, and creators the ratio of male-to-female was about 3.6 to 1. The article is worth reading because it calculated the numerical values for the different ratios between male and female roles in the media industry and the correlation of those data which makes it reliable. Its valuable to my research because it draws attention to the fact that in the media industry, there is still a gender discrimination and the there still exists the glass ceiling.


Steyer, I. (2014). Gender representations in children’s media and their influence.Campus – Wide Information Systems, 31(2), 171-180.


This peer-reviewed article seeks to draw attention to the significant underrepresentation of females and d stereotypical portrayals of both females and males that still exist in different kinds of media children are exposed to, as well as to various negative influences these may have on children’s development. In this article, it has been clearly stated that Women are underrepresented in children’s literature, television programs, as well as computer-related software. The negative representations of males have also been shown. It also tries to focus on the negative influence of sexist representations on children shown by numerous studies, as has been the potential of positively affecting children’s development by exposing them to non-traditional gender representations. This article should be valued because it seeks awareness of how highly present sexism still is in media for children and of the ways in which it may inhibit children’s development is seen as a crucial step toward change. It let us know that the change in this field is needed if we want to ensure a better, more equal future for our world.


Daalmans, S., Kleemans, M., & Sadza, A. (2017). Gender representation on gender-targeted television channels: A comparison of female- and male-targeted TV channels in the netherlands. Sex Roles, 77(5-6), 366-378.


This peer-reviewed article investigated the differences in the representation of gender on male- and female-targeted channels with regard to recognition (i.e., the actual presence of men and women) and respect (i.e., the nature of that representation or portrayal). It has compared the two female- and two male-targeted Dutch channels via content analysis and found out that there is a more pronounced difference in the representation of gender on men’s channels in different genres than on women’s channels, where gender is more evenly divided. It has also done a research on if country of origin of the programs presented on men’s and women’s channels would lead to a differing presence of men and women on these channels. The results showed that women were underrepresented in programming from all countries. It is an important article because it draws attention that the uneven gender representation in media is a worldwide issue that needs to be addressed.


Collins, R. L. (2011). Content analysis of gender roles in media: Where are we now and where should we go? Sex Roles, 64(3-4), 290-298.


This peer-reviewed article provides a commentary regarding the quantitative content analysis of gender roles in media. This article states that women are clearly under-represented across a range of media and settings and are often portrayed in a circumscribed and negative manner – often sexualized by showing them in provocative clothing. Also, it points out the fact that women are shown in stereotyped feminine roles such as nonprofessionals, homemakers, wives or parents, and sexual gatekeepers. It has also pointed out the fact that the extent of the discrimination is different by nation and race. This article is worth reading because it points out the fact that the portrayal of women is underestimated, and it concludes that, while increasing the representation of women in media may be valuable, it is also critical that the manner in which they are portrayed be simultaneously considered to avoid increasing negative or stereotypical depictions that may be particularly harmful to viewers.


England, D. E., Descartes, L., & Collier-meek, M. (2011). Gender role portrayal and the disney princesses. Sex Roles, 64(7-8), 555-567.


This article examines the gender role depiction of the Disney prince and princess characters with a focus on their behavioral characteristics and climactic outcomes in the films. It suggests that the prince and princess characters differ in their portrayal of traditionally masculine and feminine characteristics, these gender role portrayals are complex, and princes exhibited more rescuing behavior than princesses. However, the first three Disney Princess movies, produced in the 1930s and 50s, depicted in general more gendered attributes for both the princesses and the princes, and employed more traditional gender roles than did the five films produced in and after the 1980s. Although both the male and female roles have changed over time in the Disney Princess line, the male characters exhibit more androgyny throughout and less change in their gender role portrayals. This article has put the gender representation in media in an interesting way, about Disney, and it has shown that even one of the biggest animation firm is under the effect of gender stereotype.


Leonie Roderick-Tanya Joseph-Portia Woollen-Erin Lyons-Molly Fleming-Ellen Hammett-Samuel Joy.  How the Portrayal Of Women in Media Has Changed.


This article makes an argument that the portrayal of women in media has changed. It states that there has been an enormous progress and moving away from the stereotypes. But it is coming from a very low base and there is still a long way to go. We need to stop featuring women as peripheral characters. It makes an argument that the most damaging part are the ads that deals with stereotypes because they have to portray something that connects in 30 seconds. As a result, people often default to perceived advertising norms. They pointed out that it takes one person to do something different, and he or she should start questioning that perceived wisdom. This article has a great value because it is written by different people from different backgrounds and it helps us understand the general view points of other people on the gender representation in media and if they think it has changed or it has not changed.