Barner, Mark R. “Gender Stereotyping and Intended Audience Age: An Analysis of Children’s Educational/Informational TV Programming.” Communication Research Reports, vol. 16, no. 2, 1999, pp. 193–202.

In this article, the author compares the gender biases displayed in television programming for children with those shown in programs intended for adolescents. To observe this, the author conducted a study in which he viewed shows that targeted both age groups and recorded how often certain stereotypical behaviors for males and females arose. At the conclusion of the study, the author determined that gender biases were more prevalent in shows for children than they were in shows for teenagers. In fact, the author noted that most TV programming for children had a primary school-age boy as the protagonist while female characters were generally underrepresented. However, in the shows for adolescents, the author found that they displayed characters that were less gender-conforming. The information that the author presents in the article suggests that television serves as an extension of the classroom for children and can instill them with beliefs concerning gender at an age where they are most susceptible. Furthermore, the assertions that the author makes in the article indicates that children are most likely to adopt the mannerisms of the characters they come across on programs.

Biddle, Ashley, et al. “Gender Stereotypes Within TV Shows for Preschoolers and Their Effects on Children’s Stereotypes.” Gender Stereotypes Within TV Shows for Preschoolers and Their Effects on Children’s Stereotypes, 2017, pp. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses.

Throughout this dissertation, the authors focused on the representation of female and male characters in television programs that are suited for preschool-aged children. In this approach, the authors analyzed shows that had female and male main characters as well as those that spotlighted a group of principal figures, with most sharing the same gender.  In order to gain better insight in the gender roles most children witness on television, the authors conducted a survey among parents of preschoolers and collected the top twenty-two shows that their children watched. In this study, the authors found that shows with female main characters contained less gender biases than those with male protagonists. In addition to that, the authors determined that most of the words spoken in those shows came from the male characters, with 68.24% emanating from them and 28.13% coming from their female counterparts. This study showcases how the dominance of masculinity in such programs may trigger youthful viewers into believing these norms, which are not always reflected in society.  Also, the generalizations that the authors mention can also affect how children shape their aspirations.

Long, Brittany. “Creating Gender in Disney/Pixar ‘s WALL-E.” East Tennessee State University, 2011, pp. 1–20.

In this thesis, the author discusses how Disney attempts to establish gender stereotypes in the animated film WALL-E through the use of anthropomorphism. To do so, the author mainly focuses on the two main characters, WALL-E and EVE, who are robots that have come to inhabit earth during a post-apocalyptic time period. In this analysis, the author evaluates several stereotypical gender characteristics, such as physical appearance, behavior, and voice inflection, to determine the sexes of the robots. In one instance, the author asserts that WALL-E  is intended to come across as a male because he is rusty and dirty and his counterpart, EVE, is female because of how well-kept she is. In other words, the author conveys that males are often depicted as being uncaring in regards to their looks while women are much more detail-oriented. The author’s focus on this subject allows readers to obtain a better sense of the elements that are involved in showcasing certain generalizations. Also, the author assists readers in understanding how children acquire certain beliefs about gender roles.

Martin, Rebecca. “Gender and Emotion Stereotypes in Children’s Television.” Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, vol. 61, no. 3, Sept. 2017, pp. 499-517. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1080/08838151.2017.1344667.

This journal analyzes the portrayal and prevalence of emotional stereotypes in educational and non-educational television programming for children. To document this, a study was conducted in which thirteen episodes of four educational and non-educational shows were selected, and the female and male characters in the show were evaluated based on the emotions they displayed. In addition to that, the number of female and male characters were tallied for each respective programming. Once this study was conducted, it was found that more males appeared on the vast majority of the shows, with Dora the Explorer displaying the largest disparity between male and female characters. In fact, the average number of males that appeared on Dora the Explorer was 6.4 compared to 1.8 for female characters. Furthermore, the male characters exhibited more basic emotions, such as anger, happiness and aggressiveness  than their female counterparts. The results of this research illustrated that in spite of the values that children’s programs attempt to convey, most shows still gravitate towards employing certain gender biases. But even more, the information presented in this journal helps shed light on the role that television serves in shaping the long-term perspectives of children.

Powell, Kimberly, and Lori Abels. “Sex-Roles Stereotypes in TV Programs Aimed at the Preschool Audience: An Analysis of Teletubbies and Barney &Amp; Friends.” Women and Language, vol. 25, no. 2, 2002, p. 14.

In this article, the authors analyze the representation of female and male characters in two television programs that are primarily suited for preschool aged children, Barney and Friends and Teletubbies. In order to support their arguments, the authors referenced a study that was conducted on the two aforementioned shows, which took leadership, appearance, and activity into account when evaluating the genders in both shows. One important fact that the authors gathered from the study was that  Barney and Friends and Teletubbies had relatively equivalent male to female ratios, and both shows contained some elements of counter-stereotypical mannerisms. For instance, in Barney and Friends, the authors noted that Barney was cast as the leader in the show, but he consistently displayed traits that were typically associated with women, such as encouraging cooperation amongst other characters and being compassionate towards others in the show. Also, Tinky Winky, the protagonist in Teletubbies, is male but is often seen carrying a bag, which can be thought of as feminine-like when considering this behavior from a stereotypical standpoint. All in all, the arguments both authors introduce help convey that some shows for children have been breaking the mold of gender bias and instilling the concept of gender equality.

Valiente, Christian and Xeno Rasmusson. “Bucking the Stereotypes: My Little Pony and Challenges to Traditional Gender Roles.” Journal of Psychological Issues in Organizational Culture, vol. 5, no. 4, Jan. 2015, pp. 88-97. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1002/jpoc.21162.

This journal examines the manner in which the animated series My Little Pony challenges generalizations concerning gender roles. To explore this, ten episodes of My Little Pony were viewed, and in each episode, the main characters were all female with the males serving in supporting roles. Additionally, the female characters were also displayed as being authoritative and dominant. As a matter of fact, the journal mentioned how the main characters controlled the weather patterns and celestial bodies.This reference strongly highlighted how the show aims to reverse gender roles and depict female characters in contemporary fashion. Moreover, the journal even went to greater lengths to discuss the impact of the show on its viewers. In its assessment, the journal concluded that the depiction of the characters in the show would help younger viewers mature in their understandings of gender roles in society. This journal provides content that allows readers to gauge how such programming can benefit the outlooks of children and the perceptions they hold of others. It also demonstrates the values that some television shows are beginning to incorporate in their scripts.