English 1102: Television and Feminism

Dr. Casey Alane Wilson • Georgia Institute of Technology

Category: Annotated Bibliography (Page 1 of 5)

Nelson’s Annotated Biblography

Works Cited

Vancil-leap, Ashley. “Resistance and Adherence to the Gendered Representations of School Lunch Ladies.” Gender Issues, vol. 34, no. 1, 2017, pp. 67-85. ProQuest, http://prx.library.gatech.edu/login? url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/1867885669?accountid=11107,  doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12147-016-9170-9.

This article talks about the portrayal of lunch ladies in popular culture as “the witch” or “the mother” and how that hinders our understanding of the position of lunch lady. Lunch lady is often a low status, low paying occupation with female workers in need of finances. In the article, it’s mentioned how over the last two decades popular culture of lunch lady didn’t change very much and doesn’t show the fostering relationship lunch ladies often have with the kids that they serve the food to. The research seem to show that the negative image many lunch lady receive on television is used to justify the subpar pay and benefits they receive in the real world. This article has some value as it is a peer review source that had collected data across 20 years of popular media along with a year and a half of field research including working as a lunch lady and interviews. However, this article does not serve to have direct purpose as it talks of their portrayal across general media and not specifically Saturday Night Live, but could still serve to a useful resource.

Reincheld, Aaron. “”Saturday Night Live” and Weekend Update: The Formative Years of Comedy News Dissemination.” Journalism History, vol. 31, no. 4, 2006, pp. 190-197. ProQuest, http://prx.library.gatech.edu/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/205356448?accountid=11107.

The article argues that Saturday Night Live has been pivotal in creating a culture of American television satire. In the past thirty years, SNL has mainly targeted politics and politicians allowing for an evening of the political field. The SNL news parody segment, Weekend Update, helped to expand restrictions from censors by offering two different point of views of an event that week; which slowly started to restarted to look like a real newsroom overtime. The article intends to illustrate the impact that SNL had on the lives of its average 30 million viewers per week. The article has a good bit of value studying the inner workings of Saturday Night Live. They examine the development of the newscast over the first five years with the use of interviews as primary sources. The source is peer reviewed and seeks to understand the impact that Saturday Night Live and it’s Weekend Update segment has on not only the lives of its viewers, but also on the media and political landscapes. However the mistrust in the article does arrive, as the article seems to attempt to promote a point throughout the article.

Wagner, Kristen A. “”have Women a Sense of Humor?” Comedy and Femininity in Early Twentieth-Century Film.” Velvet Light Trap, no. 68, 2011, pp. 35-46. ProQuest, http://prx.library.gatech.edu/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/896625651?accountid=11107.

Women for a long while were considered unfunny in the world of comedy. This is because of the feminine ideal of the twentieth-century. That women are naturally delicate, morale, spiritual, and passive. And thus they are unsuited for the rough world of comedy. This cause women, that enter the comedy world, to have to adapt with one such way as downplaying their femininity and appearing more masculine. This also lead to the development of “feminine” comedy; which is considered to be more sensitive and emotional. It argues that women are very capable of comedy with several examples of successful female comedians. The old idea of the ideal woman not fit for comedy is outdated. The article holds some value as it’s written by Dr. Wagner, with PhD in critical studies, and copyrighted and upheld by University of Texas in Austin and seems to be providing a good bit of history. The article does not directly provide insight into women in SNL, but does give a history of women in comedy.

SHEFFIELD, ROB. “Saturday Night Live. 40 Years. 141 Cast Members. We Rank Them All. (Cover Story).” Rolling Stone, no. 1229, 26 Feb. 2015, pp. 30-43. EBSCOhost, prx.library.gatech.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=100950742&site=ehost-live.

This a compiled ranking list of all SNL cast members in the last forty years; the authors rank them based on who they believed were the best to the worst. The entire list is as they describe it. “A passionate, definitive, opinionated, subjective, irresponsible and indefensible breakdown of the Not Ready for Prime Time Players.”  They ranked them purely based on their onscreen acts, both actresses and actors alike. They rank big names to even some small names in hopes of being inclusive, but the ranking only values their onscreen impact and not any of the offscreen effort they may of had to put in. I believe this will be a valuable resource, as although it’s on the opinionated side, it lists all the cast members which will allow us to sort out the male and female cast members of SNL over the 4 decades that they have aired. The article is, however, 3 and a half years old, so it may not list any recently new cast members. It does give us a fairly extensive list of who can be considered as a cast member of SNL.

Meadows, Susannah. “LADIES of the NIGHT.” Newsweek, vol. 139, no. 14, Apr. 2002, p. 54. EBSCOhost, prx.library.gatech.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=6416808&site=ehost-live.

More women deserve to be on the staff of Saturday Night Live. It argues that the good ratings from about 2000 to 2002 for SNL were mainly achieved by three funny women in the SNL writing room. Saturday Night Live started out with equal opportunity with about 3 women to 3 men in 1975, but that changed as time went on, by  1993, the ratio changed to 3 women to 8 men. By 2002, the ratio was around 3 women for 19 men. Though as SNL Michaels said, it isn’t because of a quota system, but rather the reason is due to the fact that SNL performs parody and the news is filled with more men it would lead to a system that required more male staff. The article though trending on pushing a point does provide insight to the ratio of men to women at SNL if for nothing else then for writers. It may not prove to useful being so short.

Leano, Jessica. “The Agenda-Setting Power of Saturday Night Live.” Www.elon.edu, Elon University, 2014, www.elon.edu/u/academics/communications/journal/wp-content/uploads/sites/153/2017/06/09LeanoEJSpring14.pdf.

The article is effectively peered reviewed via two doctorates: Dr. George Padgett and Dr. Byung Lee. The article involves great value on Saturday Night Live relying on a historical perspective in order to avoid bias. It tries to study the effect that SNL has on its audience and their actions in politics. It attempts to analyzes the political power of SNL. It attempts to answer the questions: “How, and to what extent, did Saturday Night Live set the political agenda?” Even though SNL uses jokes and makes light of reality, it does have a heavy influence on the political world, especially through its political satire, by influencing the thoughts and perspectives of its viewers. The influence on people’s opinions and perceptions, termed “SNL Effect,” is expected to increase as time continues. The articles makes use of previously acquired data and research to bolster itself and attempts to include both sides of the argument to increase its reliably. The article can be made of use to double check facts on other articles that have received less review.

Women in the Wasteland: Annotated Bibliography

Sanjot Singh

Professor Wilson

English 1102

18 September 2018

Works Cited

Engstrom, Erika. “Looking through a Gendered Lens: Local U.S. Television News Anchors’ Perceived Career Barriers.” Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, vol. 44, no. 4, Fall2000, p. 614. EBSCOhost, prx.library.gatech.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=3983041&site=ehost-live.

This source is the complete report of a social science experiment that discovers what women in the television industry believed to be their greatest hindrance in their career progress. The report begins by providing a background of gender in broadcast and quotes people such as Lumsden (“Women who wanted to succeed in the male professional world had to leave their feminine selves behind” ). The survey results concluded that both sexes do share some perceptions in terms of balancing work and family life, however there is a stark difference in career barriers. The source is extremely valuable since it provides exact quotes of some of the responses to the survey. (“Women are supposed to appear attractive, perhaps even glamorous … the men just have to look trustworthy”). The greatest barrier for men was the lack of networking and support groups due to the competitiveness of the business and the fact that they were not necessarily a minority. This source offers a lot of tangible data and charts which also proves it to be valuable. For young women, the greatest barrier was physical appearances while for older, more established women, the issue was being a mother. Another striking point was the mobile nature, where women would defer career progress for the sake of their husbands while men who participated in the survey made no similar remarks about their wives. This source also cites multiple previous studies form the past (Wood (1994), Holland (1987), Sanders and Rock (1988)) and builds upon them by claiming that in order to achieve gender equity on television we need broader gender equality first.


Finneman, Teri and Joy Jenkins. “Sexism on the Set: Gendered Expectations of TV Broadcasters in a Social Media World.” Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, vol. 62, no. 3, Sept. 2018, pp. 479-494. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1080/08838151.2018.1484292.

This source is a report for another research experiment which is actually inspired from Engstrom and Ferri’s 2000 study which is another one of my sources. This makes both the sources more valuable because they build upon each other. This study further proved the conclusion that Engstrom and Ferri arrived at, which was that there is a definite double standard for women in television journalism, especially in terms of physical appearance. Finneman and Jenkins actually take into consideration modern age technology to realize that social media has exacerbated the situation by serving as “another avenue to “correct” rather than challenge gender norms”. A pervasive concern (90%) brought up through the survey was the rise in criticism through social media and the lack of support or policies from news outlets to address these concerns. “The #MoreThanMean video represents one of a series of recent incidents calling attention to the inappropriate remarks and double standards women in broadcast face.” “this study considers how female and male television journalists describe viewers’ expectations for gender performance— or what viewers believe to be “correct” appearance behaviors for broadcasters.” This report also cites other credible sources with quotes such as “beauty and appearance are central to American culture” (Meltzer, 2010, p. 50). Overall, this report is very valuable because it not only reflects the recent opinions of journalist but also the viewers of television.


Press, A. (2009). Gender and family in television’s golden age and beyond. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 625(1), 139-150. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0002716209337886

This paper explores the development of the image of women on television from pre-Golden Era to the current generation of television. Women were portrayed as more independent and living nontraditional family lives in the 1960s but then in the 1990s in hand with the counter-feminist actions, television began to relapse back to the traditional house wife depiction of women. However, amidst the third wave of feminism, women are represented in various more races and sexuality than ever before. The article also makes strong connections between themes prominent in tv and the american culture, “ television’s depiction of gender and of the family has been influential in American” using sources such as Coontz 1992. I found this source to be valuable because it discusses relevant TV shows such as Sex and the City which makes the argument relatable. This article acknowledges that there is greater diversity but there is still a emphasis on the traditional form of “beautiful women” as lead roles.


Lauzen, Martha. Boxed In 2017-18: Women On Screen and Behind the Scenes in Television. Center for the Study of Women in Television and Film, 2018, pp. 1–16, Boxed In 2017-18: Women On Screen and Behind the Scenes in Television.

This source is part of an annual study conducted by the Center for the Study of Women in Television and Film at San Diego State University. They have collected and published data for the last 21 years, making this project the most comprehensive record of women in TV. What makes this source especially valuable is the fact that it not only collects data of the women that are on camera, but also explores the behind the scene employment as well. The research made many claims including “68% of the programs considered featured casts with more male than female characters in 2017- 18.” and apparently there has been a decline in the percentage of speaking character that were women. Overall, the report provides a great amount of quantified data which reflects that women have made significant progress in television but there is still much room to improve.


Bock, M. A., Cueva Chacón, L. M., Jung, H., Sturm, H. A., & Figueroa, E. J. (2018). The faces of local TV news in america: Youth, whiteness, and gender disparities in station publicity photos. Feminist Media Studies, 18(3), 440-457. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14680777.2017.1415950

This source provides evidence that hints that women are held to a higher standard than men when it comes to broadcast television.  The authors acknowledge that there is significant criticism that the “burden” to look good is unevenly placed on women anchors, and then conducts research examining over 400 photographs to analyze the characteristics of both male and female reporters. They considered many factors from hair color to age. The research concluded that minority broadcasters are “held to a white standard of beauty”. This source is also valuable due to the breadth of factors that were included in the research.


Perlman, Allison. “Feminists In The Wasteland.” Feminist Media Studies, vol. 7, no. 4, Dec. 2007, pp. 413–431. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1080/14680770701631612.

This source is particularly valuable since it investigates the activism of the National Organization for Women, which is a very prominent and influential organization to this day. In the early 1970s, the National Organization for Women began to take action towards television reform. The report hones in on the organizations efforts to improve representation of women in broadcast television. The source not only argues that the National Organization for Women challenged the entire structure and stigma of broadcast but also “lay claim to women’s civic membership”. Overall, this source is valuable in understanding the implications that NOW had on the industry and the American culture as a whole.

Annotated Bibliography (Women in Sports Media)

  1. Harrison, Guy. “‘You Have to Have Thick Skin’: Embracing the Affective Turn as an Approach to Investigating the Treatment of Women Working in Sports Media.” Feminist Media Studies, vol. 18, no. 5, Oct. 2018, pp. 952–955. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1080/14680777.2018.1498123.


This article looks at the currently quantitative approach to examining women’s representation in sports media and sports journalism, and suggests the addition of a qualitative aspect that takes into account the emotional toll that working in the sports industry has on female reporters. Harrison suggests taking this affective approach as a result of what has been found to be a near requirement that women in sports media have to add to their work a component of affective labor, that is, they have to control their own emotions in order to succeed. Harrison states that this requirement comes from the pervasive sexist attitudes in sports media, as well as existing double standards, and through interviews with ten female sportscasters, has concluded that having this extra burden can cause women to either quit or not fully invest in the sports industry, keeping representation down. As this article looks at the ways in which studies related to women’s representation in sports media are conducted and how conclusions are drawn, it will be integral in understanding all of the following sources, which are studies related to women’s representation in sports media.


  1. Gretel Kauffman. “How Far Have Women in Sports Media Really Come?” Christian Science Monitor, 6 Oct. 2016, p. N.PAG. EBSCOhost, library.gatech.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=118571800&site=ehost-live.


This article from Christian Science Monitor is a qualitative, somewhat surface-level analysis of the progress made in terms of women’s representation in sports media. It finds that despite an increase in the number of women entering the field of sports journalism both in the classroom and in the field, sportscasting remains a male-dominated field with women having made progress in numbers but not up the ranks or with treatment. One of the female anchors interviewed for the piece also attributed it to the fact that the job is highly demanding with few benefits, as well as to the fact that sports in general is viewed as a masculine culture. The majority of this article is comprised of statements from female sportscasters who were interviewed, so the article serves as a good source of first hand accounts from women who have worked as sports journalists and have seen the progress that has been made, or the lack thereof, directly.


  1. Schmidt, Hans C. “Forgotten Athletes and Token Reporters: Analyzing the Gender Bias in Sports Journalism.” Atlantic Journal of Communication, vol. 26, no. 1, Jan. 2018, pp. 59–74. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1080/15456870.2018.1398014.


This is a mostly quantitative study of both the coverage of women’s sports and the representation of women in sports journalism. Schmidt conducted a study of various sports-related newspaper articles in three English-speaking countries, collecting data on both the subject matter of the article and on the authors of the articles and the environment in which those authors worked. Most data in the study was collected through analysis of the selected newspaper articles, which meant that there was an element of subjectivity in the study, for example, it had to be decided whether an article was respectful towards women or not. The rest of the data was gathered through surveys of both male and female sports journalists. It was found that the vast majority of articles were about men, and a significant number of those about women referred to them in a domestic role. It was also found that older male journalists were less open to increasing the number of women in the field. The author attributes these findings to the “masculine hegemony” of sports culture. This study provides hard data about the representation of women in sports print media.


  1. MILNE-TYTE, ASHLEY. “Getting Women in the Game.” Quill, vol. 103, no. 1, Jan. 2015, pp. 16–21. EBSCOhost, library.gatech.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=100812095&site=ehost-live.


This article addresses certain trends that point to an increase in women’s interest in sports and sports media, specifically that there are more female sports fans and more female journalism majors interested in sports, and draws the distinction between that and the stagnant rate at which women are actually entering the field and the role that they have once they do enter. The article claims multiple reasons for this observation, such as harassment faced on the job, a lack of importance placed on hiring women from corporations, the difficulty of the job, and the prevailing role of the female TV reporter as a “token” reporter. Another reason given is the decline of the journalism industry in recent years, specifically in print media. Multiple viewpoints are provided in this article, from both male and female reporters and executives, regarding situations related to hiring practices and the treatment of women in the industry.


  1. Greer, Jennifer D., and Amy H. Jones. “A Level Playing Field?: Audience Perceptions of Male and Female Sports Analysts.” International Journal of Interdisciplinary Social Sciences, vol. 6, no. 8, June 2012, pp. 67–79. EBSCOhost, library.gatech.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=91821599&site=ehost-live.


This article is about a two-factor study that was conducted in which the perceived competency, agreeability, and likability of a male or female reporter covering both a “male” or “female” sport (football and volleyball, respectively. This was determined from previous studies). There was found to be partial congruency with relation to gender, that is, women were perceived as being better at covering at the female sport, while there was typically no difference in the perception of the coverage of the masculine sport. The study did hypothesize full congruency with gender, and reasoned that the difference was either due to limitations in the study (one sport being much more popular than the other, which leads to participants in the study having their own opinions about it), or due to an increased openness and acceptance of women covering sports, or at least more “feminine” sports. This study is of interest as it relates the gender of the reporter to that of the athletes being covered, and it also is based off of a quantitative survey.


  1. MAHLER, JONATHAN. “In Coverage of N. F. L. Scandals, Female Voices Puncture the Din.” New York Times, vol. 164, no. 56632, 22 Sept. 2014, pp. D1–D6. EBSCOhost, prx.library.gatech.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=98392968&site=ehost-live.


This article discusses some of the positive aspects of women being represented adequately in sports media. The specific example Mahler provides is that of the Ray Rice domestic abuse scandal that occurred during the start of the 2014 NFL season, and how the opinions of prominent female sportscasters took center stage and were an important part of the conversation surrounding it. However, it also talks about how these opinions, while their importance is increasingly recognized, have not been integrated into the mainstream and are still separated from the rest of sports coverage. This article was written during the height of the Ray Rice scandal, and as a result it is an immediate review of the effect that women can have in sports media, and how this effect can be reduced by the fact that there is a lack of representation and that women’s opinions are not made audible.

Women in Crime TV works cited

Works Cited

Cavender, Gray, et al. “The construction of gender in reality crime TV.” Gender & Society, vol. 13, no. 5, 1999, p. 643+. Gender Studies Collection, http://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/A56460855/PPGB?u=gainstoftech&sid=PPGB&xid=2305cd53. Accessed 20 Sept. 2018.

This article talks about how women are often depicted as the victims of crime. The article also analysis that these shows may also help women talk about their experiences as victims. This article shows that men ultimately made the narrative and spoke for often than the women. An important note about this article is that it is very old. The article truly offers a new perspective on whether women are actually empowered by crime television or just made out to be victims. The source appears to be trustworthy and uses a lot of other research to back up its argument. This was published in the SAGE Journals. I think I will be using this article a lot in my research paper.


Crampton, Caroline. “Why Crime Dramas are Hooked on Rape.” New Statesman 143.5192 (2014): 19. Academic Search Complete. Web. 10 Aug. 2014.

This article explores why crime drama often explores the topic of rape.  The article specifically targets CSI and NCIS. This article mentions how it is hard to get through one episode of crime television without hearing about rape. This article further expands its scope by talking about Game of Thrones and how it also references rape often. The article then talks about a Danish movie that has a rape scene in the first few minutes of the movie. This article is not peer-reviewed. This article was clearly written by someone who upset about the frequent reference of women getting rapes in crime television. This article was published in NewStatesmanAmerica magazine.

Jurik, Nancy C., and Gray Cavender. “Feminist Themes in Television Crime Dramas.” Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Criminology.  June 28, 2017. Oxford University Press,. Date of access 20 Sep. 2018, <http://criminology.oxfordre.com/view/10.1093/acrefore/9780190264079.001.0001/acrefore-9780190264079-e-17>

This article focused mostly on fictional crime television. This article explained how men were more likely to be shown as the criminal than women. Women were much more likely to be the victim of violence. This article was published in a reputable journal and was peer-reviewed. I felt that the article really tied to race and gender because it mentioned how white men and women were more likely to be the victim of crimes than minorities. The article also explains what a large impact television has on people’s perspectives. I felt that the article took a very scientific approach and was very unbiased. The article was also published in 2015, which is recent compared to some of my other sources. I feel that this article would be very useful in citing how Crime Television may create the narrative that women tend to be the victims of crimes.

Karen. “Gender Portrayals in Crime Dramas through the History of Television.” Karenlovestv, 18 June 2017, karenlovestv.com/2017/06/18/gender-portrayals-in-crime-dramas-through-the-history-of-television/.

This article is very informal and is a blog. The author does not mention her real name and only goes by the name Karenlovestv. The article was very informative and entertaining and included many sources, despite this I find this blog to be untrustworthy because the author has no credibility because she chooses to remain anonymous. This blog mentions that some of the issues in crime television stem from the fact that there are not enough women working backstage. She mentions that in the world of crime television older women are obsolete, and women often tend to be the victim of crimes. She also mentions that how that in crime television, there is a prevalent belief that both men have to be cops. I did feel that the author was a bit biased and maybe sacrificed accuracy for humor.

Nolan, Justin M., and Gery W. Ryan. “Fear and Loathing at the Cineplex: Gender Differences in Descriptions and Perceptions of Slasher Films.” Sex Roles, vol. 42, no. 1, 2000, pp. 39-56. ProQuest, http://prx.library.gatech.edu/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/225376458?accountid=11107. This article analyzes research on gender differences in perception of slasher films.

This article is peer reviewed and is published on a trustworthy website. I will most likely not use much from this source because it talks about movies, not television shows. The article also talks about how different genders perceive slasher films. The article mentioned how women were more likely to fear reactions, while the men were more likely to have reactions of anger and frustration. However, this article could be used to give my research paper more context outside the realm of violent television shows. I personally don’t think the article will be very useful because it did not really mention much about how men and women are stereotyped on television. I do, however, feel that the approach used to do the study in the research paper was a good method of seeing the differences in gender when they viewed horror slasher films.

“Reality Crime TV: Perpetuating ‘Women-as-Victim’ Fears.” Media Report to Women, vol. 28, no. 3, 2000, pp. 4-5. ProQuest, http://prx.library.gatech.edu/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/210169431?accountid=11107. This article looks at the show Cops.

This article deals with intersectionality and mentioned how race also affected who the criminals and victims were. The article mentioned how the cops were almost always white males.  I felt that the article took a very scientific approach and was very unbiased. The article mentioned how no minority women were given important roles in the show. This article shows how crime-based reality television further enforces people’s gender and racial stereotypes. I really found this sources useful and will felt that it did an excellent job of dissecting the show Cops. I felt that the article really tied in race and gender. This article could be used to compare the portrayal of women in crime television to the portrayal of other minorities. This article was published in a reputable journal and was peer-reviewed.


Gender Representation Analysis: Annotated Bibliogrpahy

1. Gilly, Mary C. “Sex Roles in Advertising: A Comparison of Television Advertisements in Australia, Mexico, and the United States.” Journal of Marketing, vol. 52, no. 2, 1988, p. 75., doi:10.2307/1251266. (Peer Reviewed)
This article is valuable because it was one of the first to examine the portrayal of gender roles in television outside the United States and gives a different perspective than the recent news articles, showing the progress that international media has made in this regard. Notable findings from the article are that only 12% of the voiceovers in the advertisements were done by females and the females in Mexican commercials appearing to be much younger than the male characters appearing. Women were much less likely to be portrayed as employed in both the American and Mexican advertising. Additionally, no female characters in either the U.S. or Mexican commercials were portrayed in jobs that could be as a high-level corporate executive. Males were portrayed as much more independent and self-reliant in each of the countries. Overall, the Australian advertising seemed to promote gender equality more than the other countries. This article appeared in the highly regarded Journal of Marketing.

2. Fullerton, Jami A., and Alice Kendrick. “Portrayal of Men and Women in U.S. Spanish-Language Television Commercials.” Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, vol. 77, no. 1, 2000, pp. 128–142., doi:10.1177/107769900007700110. (Peer Reviewed)
Although this article is about advertising in the United States, the advertising being discussed primarily appeals to people who were born outside of the country, making it a suitable source for this project. Eighteen hours of Univision (the most popular Spanish language channel in the country) were analyzed. The study found that women were more likely to be targeted in ads than men alone. More than half of the advertisements were found to feature “stereotypical” gender roles, although there were several ads that portrayed men and women equally or even in the reverse of stereotypical gender roles. Women were also much more likely to be dressed in a sexually suggestive manner than male characters. Overall, the study found that women were portrayed in a fairly similar manner to English-language programming in the United States. The article is published in the Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, an industry publication.

3. Villegas, Jorge, et al. “Marianismo and Machismo: The Portrayal of Females in Mexican TV Commercials.” Journal of International Consumer Marketing, vol. 22, no. 4, 2010, pp. 327–346., doi:10.1080/08961530.2010.505884. (Peer Reviewed)
This article provides an update on the status of women in Mexican television advertising twenty years after the first article cited above. This article goes into depth on the importance of gender roles in advertising due to the fact that people act similarly to what they see on television. The article describes how women are depicted as ideally renouncing her personal interests in favor of her husband and children. In Latin America, this belief is partially due to strong religious beliefs and the significant role of the Virgin Mary in culture. This article found similar results to the others in women being more likely to be portrayed in a family or homemaker role while males were more often portrayed as professionals. A surprising finding was that female characters showed more arousal and excitement than their male counterparts.
This article was published in the well regarded Journal of International Consumer Marketing.

4. Beaudoux, Virginia García. “How Media Sexism Demeans Women and Fuels Abuse by Men like Weinstein.” The Conversation, The Conversation, 19 Sept. 2018, theconversation.com/how-media-sexism-demeans-women-and-fuels-abuse-by-men-like-weinstein-85789. (Not peer reviewed)
This article is useful because it provides several specific examples of advertising portraying women in traditional gender roles. The first advertisement, about a cleaning product, portrays a women as both a housekeeper and princess. Another example discusses how men often “mansplain” how to use a product to women who are portrayed as less intelligent. Often times when men are portrayed as doing domestic work, it is for a sexual reward from their partner. The author takes a broader view and positively declares that significant progress has been made in advertising toward gender equality, but there is a long way to go. The recent decision by the United Kingdom to ban gender stereotypes in commercials is applauded as an example for the rest of the world. This article was published by The Conversation, an Australian news outlet that has expanded internationally in recent years. The article was written by a Argentinian professor in the School of Communication at the University of Buenos Aires.

5. Mailonline, Siofra Brennan For. “First Razor Ad Showing Real Body Hair Airs on UK TV.” Daily Mail Online, Associated Newspapers, 27 July 2018, www.dailymail.co.uk/femail/article-5999613/First-razor-ad-showing-real-body-hair-airs-UK-TV.html. (Not peer reviewed)
In contrast to other articles, this recent article zeroes in on a specific advertisement and the gender stereotype that it smashes. The ad (for a razor), which aired in Britain over the summer, depicts a woman shaving her body hair. This was significant because it had long been considered taboo for a women to have body hair in commercials. This is especially strange, considering the main purpose of a razor is to trim body hair, and men’s razor commercial zoom in on hair being cut. This advertisement followed an American body brand releasing a video campaign featuring models with body hair a month prior. This advertisement being released provides hope that more gender stereotypes can be destroyed by television. However, there are still only a few companies in a few Western countries that are promoting this portrayal of women. This article is published in the Daily Mail, a well-known British newspaper.

6. Issues, por Youngers’. “Top 8 Most Sexist Ads in Spain.” Youngers’ Issues, 26 Apr. 2017, wehavesomethingtotellyou.wordpress.com/2017/04/26/top-8-most-sexist-ads-spain/ (Not peer reviewed)
This article also analyes several advertisements that range from women being portrayed in a stereotypical gender role to being overtly sexist. The first advertisement discussed, for a luxury car, is a severe case of the latter. The female narrator says “Look at me, touch me, incite me, provoke me, seduce me, control me, protect me, shout me, relax me … I am [name of car]”. This advertisement depicts a woman as a sexual object for someone else’s (presumably a male) pleasure. Barbie and other girl toy advertisements establish a gender hierarchy and influence girls toward being household figures. An ad for a cleaning product claims that it will give the protagonist, a woman, more time to be with her children, assuming these are her primary responsibility. Alcohol advertisements are primarily aimed at men and appeal to their sense of manliness, in addition to frequently featuring females in sexualized roles. Although this article is written in a blog, I believe it is credible due to the professional manner of the writing an well-chosen examples of a writer who put significant research into their articles.

Citations: Gender representation in Television

Glascock, J. (2001). Gender roles on prime-time network television: Demographics and behaviors. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 45(4), 656-669. Retrieved from http://prx.library.gatech.edu/login?url=https://search-proquest-com.prx.library.gatech.edu/docview/227286652?accountid=11107


This peer-reviewed article seeks to evaluate gender roles on Prime-Time Network Television, including children’s programming and soap operas. Types of characters included single women, working women and women with determinable occupations. This article focuses on prime-time fictional programming (comedies and dramas) and includes all characters with speaking parts. It demonstrated that the males outnumbered females among main characters and speaking time by the ratio of 1.7 to 1. It also showed that in creative personnel behind the scenes such as producers, directors, writers, and creators the ratio of male-to-female was about 3.6 to 1. The article is worth reading because it calculated the numerical values for the different ratios between male and female roles in the media industry and the correlation of those data which makes it reliable. Its valuable to my research because it draws attention to the fact that in the media industry, there is still a gender discrimination and the there still exists the glass ceiling.


Steyer, I. (2014). Gender representations in children’s media and their influence.Campus – Wide Information Systems, 31(2), 171-180. https://search.proquest.com/docview/1536416276/fulltextPDF/41635C19A0614219PQ/16?accountid=11107


This peer-reviewed article seeks to draw attention to the significant underrepresentation of females and d stereotypical portrayals of both females and males that still exist in different kinds of media children are exposed to, as well as to various negative influences these may have on children’s development. In this article, it has been clearly stated that Women are underrepresented in children’s literature, television programs, as well as computer-related software. The negative representations of males have also been shown. It also tries to focus on the negative influence of sexist representations on children shown by numerous studies, as has been the potential of positively affecting children’s development by exposing them to non-traditional gender representations. This article should be valued because it seeks awareness of how highly present sexism still is in media for children and of the ways in which it may inhibit children’s development is seen as a crucial step toward change. It let us know that the change in this field is needed if we want to ensure a better, more equal future for our world.


Daalmans, S., Kleemans, M., & Sadza, A. (2017). Gender representation on gender-targeted television channels: A comparison of female- and male-targeted TV channels in the netherlands. Sex Roles, 77(5-6), 366-378. https://search.proquest.com/docview/1927952499/62E183F1A3954D92PQ/7?accountid=11107


This peer-reviewed article investigated the differences in the representation of gender on male- and female-targeted channels with regard to recognition (i.e., the actual presence of men and women) and respect (i.e., the nature of that representation or portrayal). It has compared the two female- and two male-targeted Dutch channels via content analysis and found out that there is a more pronounced difference in the representation of gender on men’s channels in different genres than on women’s channels, where gender is more evenly divided. It has also done a research on if country of origin of the programs presented on men’s and women’s channels would lead to a differing presence of men and women on these channels. The results showed that women were underrepresented in programming from all countries. It is an important article because it draws attention that the uneven gender representation in media is a worldwide issue that needs to be addressed.


Collins, R. L. (2011). Content analysis of gender roles in media: Where are we now and where should we go? Sex Roles, 64(3-4), 290-298. https://search.proquest.com/docview/850508348/B3F4FD7FAFAB4B7CPQ/1?accountid=11107


This peer-reviewed article provides a commentary regarding the quantitative content analysis of gender roles in media. This article states that women are clearly under-represented across a range of media and settings and are often portrayed in a circumscribed and negative manner – often sexualized by showing them in provocative clothing. Also, it points out the fact that women are shown in stereotyped feminine roles such as nonprofessionals, homemakers, wives or parents, and sexual gatekeepers. It has also pointed out the fact that the extent of the discrimination is different by nation and race. This article is worth reading because it points out the fact that the portrayal of women is underestimated, and it concludes that, while increasing the representation of women in media may be valuable, it is also critical that the manner in which they are portrayed be simultaneously considered to avoid increasing negative or stereotypical depictions that may be particularly harmful to viewers.


England, D. E., Descartes, L., & Collier-meek, M. (2011). Gender role portrayal and the disney princesses. Sex Roles, 64(7-8), 555-567.  https://search.proquest.com/docview/857999236/fulltextPDF/F9C14CCB94394FE2PQ/1?accountid=11107


This article examines the gender role depiction of the Disney prince and princess characters with a focus on their behavioral characteristics and climactic outcomes in the films. It suggests that the prince and princess characters differ in their portrayal of traditionally masculine and feminine characteristics, these gender role portrayals are complex, and princes exhibited more rescuing behavior than princesses. However, the first three Disney Princess movies, produced in the 1930s and 50s, depicted in general more gendered attributes for both the princesses and the princes, and employed more traditional gender roles than did the five films produced in and after the 1980s. Although both the male and female roles have changed over time in the Disney Princess line, the male characters exhibit more androgyny throughout and less change in their gender role portrayals. This article has put the gender representation in media in an interesting way, about Disney, and it has shown that even one of the biggest animation firm is under the effect of gender stereotype.


Leonie Roderick-Tanya Joseph-Portia Woollen-Erin Lyons-Molly Fleming-Ellen Hammett-Samuel Joy.  How the Portrayal Of Women in Media Has Changed. https://www.marketingweek.com/2017/03/08/portrayal-women-media/


This article makes an argument that the portrayal of women in media has changed. It states that there has been an enormous progress and moving away from the stereotypes. But it is coming from a very low base and there is still a long way to go. We need to stop featuring women as peripheral characters. It makes an argument that the most damaging part are the ads that deals with stereotypes because they have to portray something that connects in 30 seconds. As a result, people often default to perceived advertising norms. They pointed out that it takes one person to do something different, and he or she should start questioning that perceived wisdom. This article has a great value because it is written by different people from different backgrounds and it helps us understand the general view points of other people on the gender representation in media and if they think it has changed or it has not changed.

The Effects of Television Programming on Children’s Perceptions of Gender Norms


Al-Shehab, Ali. “GENDER AND RACIAL REPRESENTATION IN CHILDREN’S TELEVISION PROGRAMMING IN KUWAIT: IMPLICATIONS FOR EDUCATION.”Social Behavior and Personality, vol. 36, no. 1, 2008, pp. 49-63. ProQuest, http://prx.library.gatech.edu/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/209925892?accountid=11107.

This source explores the effects of gender stereotypes in Egyptian satellite television and Kuwait national television on children. The study found that the Kuwait national channel tended to under represent minorities in the country, along with women. Likewise, portrayals of these characters tended to confirm to traditional stereotypes. The study argues that since children are so susceptible to conforming to the gender stereotypes seen on television, that children should be educated earlier on about the fact that what is demonstrated on television is not an accurate representation of gender roles. This source is relevant to us because it explores the effects of demonstrated gender stereotypes on children. While this study was performed on television channels in other nations, the fact that children are easily influenced means its effects can be compared to those of shows in the United States. It can allow us to demonstrate how gender roles influences children.

2. Gender Representation on Gender-Targeted Television Channels: A Comparison of Female- and Male-Targeted TV Channels in the Netherlands

Daalmans, Serena, Mariska Kleemans, and Anne Sadza. “Gender Representation on Gender-Targeted Television Channels: A Comparison of Female- and Male-Targeted TV Channels in the Netherlands.” Sex Roles, vol. 77, no. 5-6, 2017, pp. 366-378. ProQuest, http://prx.library.gatech.edu/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/1927952499?accountid=11107, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11199-016-0727-6.

This study analyzed gender representation in two kinds of television shows: those which targeted female viewers and those which targeted male viewers. It evaluated how opposite genders were demonstrated in each of these two scenarios, and the respectfulness of these portrayals. The location of this study was the Netherlands, and the shows analyzed were Dutch. It was found that, regardless of genre as well as the country of origin, women were underrepresented on men’s channels more so than men on women’s channels. Furthermore, women were more stereotypically represented on men’s channels than they were on women’s. On the contrary, men were more often represented in non-stereotypical ways on women’s channels. The source also argues that, because of the increased societal status of women in the modern day, male shows have felt more pressure to highlight masculinity. This source could be of use because, while it appears to highlight gender roles in adult shows, its implications could be traced down to children’s shows. Since there are certainly many shows which are tailored to specific genders on children’s televisions, the portrayal of gender stereotypes on these shows is important to analyze. This source can provide some insight into these trends in show writing.

3. Television Cartoons: Do Children Notice It’s a Boy’s World?

Thompson, T.L. & Zerbinos, E. Sex Roles (1997) 37: 415. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1025657508010

This study analyzed how gender stereotypes affected children aged four to nine years old by conducting interviews with these children. The children were asked questions which allowed the researchers to infer what opinions the children had regarding female and male cartoon characters. It was found that children often considered male characters to be more violent and active, whereas girls were portrayed as being more domestic and appealing to boys. It was also noted that the children correlated expectations of genders and job preferences, with what they observed on television. The article mentions that parental intervention could have an impact on whether or not children draw these conclusions from cartoons or television in general. This article could be a valuable source to us as it provides information about the effects of television on children and their interpretation of gender roles. More significantly, this article allows us to directly correlate television with children’s perceptions of their gender roles in society, such as how it influences their desires to enter certain careers or act in certain ways.

4. Children’s construction of fantasy stories: Gender differences in conflict resolution strategies

Peirce, K. & Edwards, E.D. Sex Roles (1988) 18: 393. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00288391

This source argues that, due to the influence of media and literature on children’s perceptions of gender roles, children’s creation of fantasy stories tends to mold into the conformities of gender stereotypes. Stories written by children tended to portray male characters as being more violent with more diverse careers, while female characters were more passive in conflict resolution. The article also mentions how the progressive and changing workforce (as in, women taking less traditional roles) had no effect on how female and male characters were portrayed in these children’s stories. In the boys’ stories, endings and conflicts were more likely to be resolved with violence, with conflicts more likely to be present in the stories in general. Overall, this source is worth analyzing because it provides insight into how the media (such as television) affects children’s imagination. The way these children write their fantasy stories can be directly correlated to the effects the media has on them. This would allow our research to prove a correlation between gender portrayal on television and its future effects on children.

5. The Gender-Role Content of Children’s Favorite Television Programs and Its Links to Their Gender-Related Perceptions

Jennifer Stevens Aubrey & Kristen Harrison (2004) The Gender-Role Content of Children’s Favorite Television Programs and Its Links to Their Gender-Related Perceptions, Media Psychology, 6:2, 111-146, DOI: 10.1207/s1532785xmep0602_1

This article sought to demonstrate the connections between first and second graders’ favorite television shows and their effects on children’s perception of the television characters. Upon studying the shows further, it was found that there was still a larger tendency for male characters to answer questions, be leaders, be ingenious, eat, or achieve a goal. Interestingly enough, it was also found that girls preferences for male stereotypical characters negatively impacted their perceptions of the female characters. It was found that children did not specifically seek out programming which was gender stereotypical, however, when they did observe these kinds of television shows, they tended to conform to those norms. This source is valuable to use because it provides insight into children’s perceptions of television programming. This source also provides a large amount of data which we can use to aid in our research of the effects of this programming on children. The study itself seems to further prove our argument, that children’s programming can have an effect on how children perceive their own gender norms.

6.  Appraising gender role portrayals in TV commercials

Kolbe, R.H. & Langefeld, C.D. Sex Roles (1993) 28: 393. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00289604

This study looked into the effects of television commercials on people’s perceptions of gender roles. The study examined hundreds of college students to see how different television commercials affected their perceptions of gender roles. While it was addressing college students, its implications extend beyond only young adults. It implies how commercials, which are designed to manipulate an audience’s opinion, can have even greater effects on people’s perceptions of gender when they incorporate extensive gender stereotypes. This research could be quite useful to us as commercial have wide effects on television audiences. This can be especially true for children, as commercials which are more conforming to gender stereotypes can help propagate these stereotypes in children. For example, if a child were to be watching television programming and see a toy commercial advertising towards a specific gender, then they could associate that toy as being for that gender. This study could allow us to explore these effects more, as commercials are just as much a part of the television experience as the shows themselves.

Annotated Bibliography: To what extent do portrayals of gender and violence on television crime dramas perpetuate popular crime myths?

Britto, Sarah, et al. “Does ‘Special’ Mean Young, White and Female? Deconstructing the Meaning of ‘Special’ in Law & Order: Special Victims Unit.” Journal of Criminal Justice and Popular Culture, vol. 14, no. 1, 2007, pp. 39–57.

This source is valuable for three reasons. First, it provides an overview in the common ways that crime dramas skew audience perspectives of a reality that few have experienced themselves. It takes a particularly close look at Law and Order: Special Victims Unit, as a case study for crime dramas with a particular theme. The article uses content-analysis to generate characteristics about the way that sexual crimes are portrayed in the fictional television show, and it compares these to real statistics from New York City, where the show is set. Britto et al examine the way that Law and Order SVU depicts, not only perpetrators of crimes, but the victims themselves. Using the statistics gathered, the authors create a characterization of what the show considers “special” victims. The show stresses age as a determining factor to separate innocent (young) victims from evil (old) perpetrators. White victims are also dramatically overrepresented, while minority victims are downplayed. Additionally, the authors note that frequently episodes would center around the murder of males and assaults carried out on males, and they stress that this is an overrepresentation of the prevalence of female sex-offenders. This serves to “de-gender” the issue of rape.

Epinger, Ebonie. Visual and Narrative Aspects of Front-Page Crime Stories for Male and Female Offenders: Does Race and Ethnicity Matter?, University of Nebraska at Omaha, Ann Arbor, 2016. ProQuest, http://prx.library.gatech.edu/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/1830439473?accountid=11107.

This source is valuable because it provides some contrast to the other papers about portrayals of violence and violent offenders in dramatic television by studying the way that actual news broadcasts shift public perception about crime demographics. The source builds on the assumption that the public’s perceptions of crime are affected by what they are exposed to via the media. Epinger et al show how news channels report stories differently depending on the race, gender, and class of the people involved. For instance, mug shots are shown more often for nonwhite offenders than for white offenders. Wealthy offenders are often given the opportunity to speak for themselves while poor offenders are often spoken for by police officers. In general, news outlets are responsible for creating narratives that perpetuate the public’s preconceived ideas about crime, who commits it, and who it is committed against. News outlets emphasize stories that victimize white females, while offering more insight into mitigating factors for the guilt of white criminals.

Fernández-Villanueva, Concepción, et al. “Gender Differences in the Representation of Violence on Spanish Television: Should Women be More Violent?” Sex Roles, vol. 61, no. 1-2, 2009, pp. 85-100. ProQuest, http://prx.library.gatech.edu/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/225369844?accountid=11107, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11199-009-9613-9.

This article takes a valuable look at the way that the gender of perpetrators and victims of violence in Spanish television shows affects viewers’ attitudes and understandings of gender roles. It took a quantitative look at instances of violence in Spanish television shows, and it examined how these instances portray the people involved. The paper finds that women in Spanish television have a “minimal presence” in scenes involving acts of violence. It also finds that women tend to suffer from more serious acts of violence. Those who perpetrate acts of violence against women tend to have more positive outcomes, all while having their actions viewed as less legitimate in the eyes of the show’s narrative. This reveals an inconsistency in the way that shows portray violence. Hurting women is highly frowned upon, yet it is often portrayed as bringing positive outcomes to those who do it. Additionally, the fact the women are almost always in positions of victimhood, perpetuates the stereotypes that women are fundamentally vulnerable.

Lee, Moon J., et al. “Effects of Violence Against Women in Popular Crime Dramas on Viewers’ Attitudes Related to Sexual Violence.” Mass Communication & Society, vol. 14, no. 1, 2011, pp. 25. ProQuest, http://prx.library.gatech.edu/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/856980802?accountid=11107.

This source takes a very interesting look at how thoughtful portrayals of sexual and physical violence in television dramas can be used to combat rape myths. The study had 176 college undergraduates watch clips television crime dramas that featured sexual or physical violence against women and rate them on a number of scales. The source identifies sexual violence as a major public health issue in the United States and it introduces and examines ways that popular crime dramas can affect public attitudes and understandings of sexual violence. For instance, the source found that prime time television crime dramas often show sexual violence, and several have scenes that explain the importance of consent, or clear up common ambiguities or misconceptions about consent when drugs are involved. The source finds that in men who viewed clips of sexual violence, support for traditional gender roles dropped, and that scenes of sexual violence were much less enjoyable than those of physical violence. This lead Lee et al to conclude that accurate portrayals of sexual violence and its effects can help turn men away from potentially violent actions in real life.

Meyer, Michaela D., and E. “The “Other” Woman in Contemporary Television Drama: Analyzing Intersectional Representation on Bones.” Sexuality & Culture, vol. 19, no. 4, 2015, pp. 900-915. ProQuest, http://prx.library.gatech.edu/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/1720398060?accountid=11107, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12119-015-9296-z.

This source is useful for examining another aspect of women’s involvement in television crime dramas. It investigates how intersectionality affects the portrayals of women in the television show Bones. Rather than taking the stance that intersectionality is a positive thing that brings additional diversity to a show, Meyer et al demonstrate how, using a single intersectional character to focus all issues of identity politics, shows can section off such issues and separate them from the main narrative of the show. The result, it is argued, is that audiences continue to see these issues and those that they affect as “other” and do not have to confront them with the same seriousness that they would have to bring to a white character’s problems. This source takes a step away from the issue of violence and victimhood, and instead explores the other ways that modern crime dramas influence our views of the world through “quirky” token intersectional characters.

Parrott, Scott, and Caroline T. Parrott. “U.S. Television’s “Mean World” for White Women: The Portrayal of Gender and Race on Fictional Crime Dramas.” Sex Roles, vol. 73, no. 1-2, 2015, pp. 70-82. ProQuest, http://prx.library.gatech.edu/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/1695352054?accountid=11107, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11199-015-0505-x.

The source is valuable because it takes a very analytical approach to evaluating instances of violence in television shows. Using content analysis, the paper gathered information of 983 characters across 65 episodes of crime television, breaking down aggressors and victims by race and gender. The source analyzed these statistics with the hypothesis that males would be most likely to commit violent crimes, while females would be more likely to be the victims of these crimes. The study found that these hypotheses were supported by the data, and that white female characters were by far the most common victims in crime television. They were the most common targets of violent crime and sexual assault, as well as the most likely demographic to die or be attacked by a stranger. The study discusses how these portrayals can support a myth that overplays the frequency of attacks targeting white women, and disregards violence against other demographics.

Annotated Bibliography: The Victimization of Women on TV

Annotated Bibliography

Philippe Lamarche


Callanan, Valerie J. “Media Consumption, Perceptions of Crime Risk and Fear of Crime: Examining Race/Ethnic Differences.” Sociological Perspectives 55.1 (2012): 93-115. ProQuest. Web. 20 Sep. 2018.

This peer-reviewed article aims to answer two main questions: 1) how do different types of crime-related media affect fear of crime, and 2) does media-related fear of crime differ for different ethnic and racial groups? The study used well-researched assessments to determine perception of neighborhood crime risk and the fear of crime, and then looked to see if there were trends regarding race/ethnicity. The survey’s results determined that fear of crime is higher in victims, women, blacks, and Latinos, and that it is negatively associated with education, age, and income. It also, however, concluded that crime drama television had little to no impact on fear of crime. This source is meaningful to our research because it goes in depth on how the portrayal of violence and crime on television can affect society, thus emphasizing the importance of the portrayal of women on television. However, it is inconclusive as to whether victimization of women in crime dramas actually influences their fear of crime.


Cavender, Gray, and Nancy C. Jurik. “Policing Race and Gender: An Analysis of “Prime Suspect 2″.” Women’s Studies Quarterly 32.3 (2004): 211-30. ProQuest. Web. 20 Sep. 2018.

This article dives into a particular episode of the television series called Prime Suspect, a crime drama featuring a London policewoman Jane Tennison, with the objective of discussing how it handles race and gender. The show first aired in 1991 and was taken off air in 2006, placing it during third wave feminism. After 3 in-depth observations of Prime Suspect 2, the researchers concluded that although this film features a prominent female protagonist, it fails in promoting ideals of gender and racial equality. This article introduces us to and dissects a good example of a show that attempts to take a feminist stance by including a female lead in a male-dominated profession. Despite this, the show errs more on the side of post-feminist depictions of women; Jane Tennison’s strength and determination leave her alone and unlikable.  Despite its failure at promoting feminism, this show also serves as an exception to prove the rule: crime dramas with female leads are few and far in between, and even those that exist don’t always uphold feminist values.


Sommers, Zach. “MISSING WHITE WOMAN SYNDROME: AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF RACE AND GENDER DISPARITIES IN ONLINE NEWS COVERAGE OF MISSING PERSONS.” Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology 106.2 (2016): 275-314. ProQuest. Web.           20 Sep. 2018.

This article is an attempt at measuring the accurateness of the Missing White Woman Syndrome. Missing White Woman Syndrome is the cultural phenomenon where white women and girls are reported missing more than any other group of Americans. The authors discovered that the disparity in coverage is indeed true, and this was accomplished by looking at FBI data and data from 4 online news sources. Statistical analysis was used to prove that both women and white persons were overrepresented as missing, thus it was concluded that white women were overrepresented as well. Although the article does not dive into why this is the case, we can hypothesize that this is the case because women are often portrayed as needing saving (i.e. damsel in distress). Regardless of the reason, it reinforces the idea that women on television are heavily associated with being victims. Even in the news, women are disproportionately shown as victims when compared to men, spurring the belief that women are more helpless and in need of defending.


Costanza, Justine Ashley. “Sexist Portrayals Of Women Still Dominate Prime Time TV: Study.” International Business Times. IBT Media Inc, 15 Nov. 2012. Web. 21 Sept. 2018.

This article comes from an online newspaper, and it discusses the rampant sexism still present in the entertainment industry. It brings up the fact that even though things are improving and women are getting more and more involved in the production of television, there are clear inequalities. Costanza argues that we still see a lot of stereotypes on television that we think have been left in the past, like a female character’s worth being tied completely to her relation to a man. She also strongly emphasizes that objectification and sexualization of women is very present and negatively affects general female audiences. Although this article doesn’t specifically talk to women being portrayed as victims, it can be implied that this portrayal is also a result of sexism in the industry. Adding to this source’s value is that it speaks to the current state of the television industry and suggests that unless women become more empowered in the television industry, female characters will continue to be victimized and portrayed negatively.


Hains, Rebecca C. “The Problematics of Reclaiming the Girlish: The Powerpuff Girls and Girl      Power.” Femspec 5.1 (2004): 1. ProQuest. Web. 20 Sep. 2018.

First, this article introduces “girl power” as a part of the contemporary movement and discusses the idea behind the movement: women and strong are not mutually exclusive. It also argues, on the other hand, that embracing “girl power” is to shift focus back on femininity and to a toxic obsession over looks. The author here looks at the Powerpuff Girls and analyzes its themes of girl power versus feminism. She argues that the show has a complicated tendency to portray women both progressively and regressively. The show embraces the idea that girls can be both cute and strong at the same time; that women and girls aren’t restricted to being just one or the other. However, this message ends up being very specific to race, class, and size. The message that girls can be anything ends up being represented only by white, middle class, attractive girls. Consequently, the show suggests that if you are not these things, you cannot be a powerful girl. This article can be used as an example of a television show with strong, female protagonists but who unsuccessfully try to empower girls as a whole. It supports the observation that lack of victimization of women does not necessarily mean that it upholds feminist ideals.

Park, Jaeyoon. “The Unruly Woman in FX’s Justified.” Americana : The Journal of American         Popular Culture, 1900 to Present 13.2 (2014)ProQuest. Web. 20 Sep. 2018.

This article focuses on the FX Series Justified, and like a few others, looks in-depth at a show with complicated pre-feminist and pro-feminist ideals. The author focuses on two central female characters who exhibit pro-feminist qualities but are limited by their pre-feminist conditions in an isolated society where the patriarchy is prominent. This setting can be explained by the show’s plot taking place in the heart of the Appalachia, assumed to be a culturally backward region. One of the main female characters is an unruly working-class woman who kills her repeatedly abusive husband, and typically lives as she wants, without falling into the usual female tropes. She refuses to be treated unfairly by men, and she is untamable. The other character however, despite being the leader of a marijuana ring and exercising power of many people, is held back by her vulnerability and motherhood. This show, and the author’s analysis of it, depict a different kind of victimization: these two women who embody many pro-feminist ideals, are essentially victims of the pre-feminist culture they live in. This victimization may not look the same as victimization in the face of physical violence, but the effect is the same: they are restricted as women and as people. To add to this show’s credit and relevance, Justified also succeeds in representing working-class women, who are usually neglected in favor of middle-class women.

Doctor Who????

Press, Andrea, and Terry Strathman. “Work, Family and Social Class in Television Images of Women: Prime-Time Television and the Construction of Postfeminism.” Women and Language, vol. 16, no. 2, 1993, pp. 7. ProQuest, http://prx.library.gatech.edu/login?


The source “Work, family and social class in television images of women: Prime-time television and the construction of post feminism” discusses the transformation of how women of various social classes, families, and work divisions are represented in America’s prime time television over many decades. This document does not relate to the show Doctor Who and its companions, however it still provides multitudes on information that is relevant to the topic and correlates to Doctor Who. This source is valuable because it provides a foundation of how feminism and women have been portrayed in American prime time television. For younger generations, this is especially important as they have grown up with television shows and series that star women and that are created by women; however, this was not always the case. This source explains how women did not have a significant impact in television until the last twenty years. This knowledge is crucial before comparing how feminism has evolved (if it has) in the show Doctor Who. This source is also valuable because it provides very specific examples of the points it puts across.


Laville, Helen. “Prime-Time Feminism. Television, Media Culture and the Women’s Movement since 1970 / Seeing through the Eighties, Television and Reaganism.” Historical Journal of Film, Radio, and Television, vol. 19, no. 2, 1999, pp. 297-299. ProQuest, http://prx.library.gatech.edu/login?



The source ” Prime-Time Feminism. Television, media culture and the Women’s Movement Since 1970 / Seeing Through the Eighties, Television and Reaganism” argues how feminism has evolved, specifically in television, since the 1970s. This source provides very thorough and relevant information with specific instances and examples for and against the argument of the article. As a result, this source is valuable. Because it provides information on how certain periods have progressed and digressed in terms of the role of women in television. In addition, this source incorporates the political tensions at the time with the rising popularity of President Reagan and Reaganism. This is unique compared to other sources as it introduces a new conflict that is very influential on America’s prime time television before, during, and after President Reagan’s terms as president and vice president. This source is also valuable because of provides viewpoints from two other diverse sources with Feuer’s and Dow’s books.

“Who’s Sexiest in a Tardis?” Daily Record, Mar 21, 2005, pp. 4. ProQuest, http://prx.library.gatech.edu/login?



The argument of this source “Who’s the sexiest in a tardis?” is the determine the most attractive companion in the show Doctor Who. The source provides a small reasoning for each competitor of companions and how they prove to be attractive. This source is valuable because of the reasons why one companion was more attractive over another companion. This is important in relation to feminism as women were avoid objectification: “[Peri] caused an outrage during the mid-80s with several scenes in just a bikini. In this time period, it was not very common or normal for a woman to wear revealing clothing. The source also includes many quotes from the audience with their opinion to the companion at the time of the show airing which can show how one would have reacted to women decades ago versus how it is completely normal to see women in revealing clothes, such as bikinis, on television. A comparison to be made with this article is the power each companion had with their attractiveness to determine if power as a character was or was not proportional to attractiveness in terms of how to character was allowed to portray herself.


“So Who is Your Favourite Dr Who Assistant?” South Wales Echo, Jun 19, 2008, pp. 8. ProQuest, http://prx.library.gatech.edu/login?



The argument of the source is to give brief descriptions of all the companions of the show Doctor Who in order to make a personalized decision on who one thinks was the best companion in the show. Each companion has details on her personality, time in the show and general character. This source can be valuable, not in the descriptions of the female companions, but in comparison to each other as this show has been running for many decades: comparisons made between companions can give an idea of how the companions progressed throughout the years, specifically her role and how it relates to the respective wave of feminism. This source is also considered valuable because the information present leads to new connections about the time period and how feminism was present in prime-time television. It is also interesting and important to consider if any of the companions lost any roles or power as a character as the years went by. It is fascinating to follow up this consideration with the fact that the next doctor in Doctor Who has been announced a being a female for the first time in Doctor Who History.


Beck, Debra B. “The “F” Word: How the Media Frame Feminism.” NWSA Journal, vol. 10, no. 1, 1998, pp. 139-153. ProQuest, http://prx.library.gatech.edu/login?



The source “The “F” word: How the media frame feminism” argues how feminism has developed over the previous decades in various media. This article takes an unconventional approach in how “feminism became a national “dirty word” and why it can be perceived that way. The source proceeds in chronological order with make the source quite valuable as it allows for a clearer and more visible comparison on how feminism in media changed year by year. An important aspect that Beck introduces is how there was a “Mass rejection of feminism by young women, largely in response to negative images that are at least perpetuated in media.”  This is critical because an opinion against feminism by women is not typically included in research relating to feminism as it could go against one’s argument. Another valuable aspect of this source is how it makes conclusions: many sources leave it up to the reader on what to think about the topic which can sometimes become difficult when many points of view are put upfront.


McDonald, Soraya N. Who should Play Doctor Who? Former Time Lord Sylvester McCoy Says it should always be a Man. WP Company LLC d/b/a The Washington Post, Washington, 2015. ProQuest, http://prx.library.gatech.edu/login?



The source “Who should play Doctor Who? Former Time Lord Sylvester McCoy says it should always be a man” argues how the seventh doctor of Doctor Who, Sylvester McCoy, believes the doctor should always be a man. This source is extremely valuable as it gives the point of view from a former star of the show. His view is very powerful and influential because he was such a prominent character. This article shows how many people are not afraid of expressing their views not only for feminism, but against feminism. This provides valuable cross source connections where the animosity can be seen through many people. This source also gives background information on how ever since Doctor Who first aired on television, the doctor has been a man and the main companions have been women. This article is interesting in the sense that regardless of what Sylvester McCoy said, the next doctor has been confirmed to be a woman.

Representation of Male and Female Characters in Television Programming for Children


Barner, Mark R. “Gender Stereotyping and Intended Audience Age: An Analysis of Children’s Educational/Informational TV Programming.” Communication Research Reports, vol. 16, no. 2, 1999, pp. 193–202.

In this article, the author compares the gender biases displayed in television programming for children with those shown in programs intended for adolescents. To observe this, the author conducted a study in which he viewed shows that targeted both age groups and recorded how often certain stereotypical behaviors for males and females arose. At the conclusion of the study, the author determined that gender biases were more prevalent in shows for children than they were in shows for teenagers. In fact, the author noted that most TV programming for children had a primary school-age boy as the protagonist while female characters were generally underrepresented. However, in the shows for adolescents, the author found that they displayed characters that were less gender-conforming. The information that the author presents in the article suggests that television serves as an extension of the classroom for children and can instill them with beliefs concerning gender at an age where they are most susceptible. Furthermore, the assertions that the author makes in the article indicates that children are most likely to adopt the mannerisms of the characters they come across on programs.

Biddle, Ashley, et al. “Gender Stereotypes Within TV Shows for Preschoolers and Their Effects on Children’s Stereotypes.” Gender Stereotypes Within TV Shows for Preschoolers and Their Effects on Children’s Stereotypes, 2017, pp. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses.

Throughout this dissertation, the authors focused on the representation of female and male characters in television programs that are suited for preschool-aged children. In this approach, the authors analyzed shows that had female and male main characters as well as those that spotlighted a group of principal figures, with most sharing the same gender.  In order to gain better insight in the gender roles most children witness on television, the authors conducted a survey among parents of preschoolers and collected the top twenty-two shows that their children watched. In this study, the authors found that shows with female main characters contained less gender biases than those with male protagonists. In addition to that, the authors determined that most of the words spoken in those shows came from the male characters, with 68.24% emanating from them and 28.13% coming from their female counterparts. This study showcases how the dominance of masculinity in such programs may trigger youthful viewers into believing these norms, which are not always reflected in society.  Also, the generalizations that the authors mention can also affect how children shape their aspirations.

Long, Brittany. “Creating Gender in Disney/Pixar ‘s WALL-E.” East Tennessee State University, 2011, pp. 1–20.

In this thesis, the author discusses how Disney attempts to establish gender stereotypes in the animated film WALL-E through the use of anthropomorphism. To do so, the author mainly focuses on the two main characters, WALL-E and EVE, who are robots that have come to inhabit earth during a post-apocalyptic time period. In this analysis, the author evaluates several stereotypical gender characteristics, such as physical appearance, behavior, and voice inflection, to determine the sexes of the robots. In one instance, the author asserts that WALL-E  is intended to come across as a male because he is rusty and dirty and his counterpart, EVE, is female because of how well-kept she is. In other words, the author conveys that males are often depicted as being uncaring in regards to their looks while women are much more detail-oriented. The author’s focus on this subject allows readers to obtain a better sense of the elements that are involved in showcasing certain generalizations. Also, the author assists readers in understanding how children acquire certain beliefs about gender roles.

Martin, Rebecca. “Gender and Emotion Stereotypes in Children’s Television.” Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, vol. 61, no. 3, Sept. 2017, pp. 499-517. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1080/08838151.2017.1344667.

This journal analyzes the portrayal and prevalence of emotional stereotypes in educational and non-educational television programming for children. To document this, a study was conducted in which thirteen episodes of four educational and non-educational shows were selected, and the female and male characters in the show were evaluated based on the emotions they displayed. In addition to that, the number of female and male characters were tallied for each respective programming. Once this study was conducted, it was found that more males appeared on the vast majority of the shows, with Dora the Explorer displaying the largest disparity between male and female characters. In fact, the average number of males that appeared on Dora the Explorer was 6.4 compared to 1.8 for female characters. Furthermore, the male characters exhibited more basic emotions, such as anger, happiness and aggressiveness  than their female counterparts. The results of this research illustrated that in spite of the values that children’s programs attempt to convey, most shows still gravitate towards employing certain gender biases. But even more, the information presented in this journal helps shed light on the role that television serves in shaping the long-term perspectives of children.

Powell, Kimberly, and Lori Abels. “Sex-Roles Stereotypes in TV Programs Aimed at the Preschool Audience: An Analysis of Teletubbies and Barney &Amp; Friends.” Women and Language, vol. 25, no. 2, 2002, p. 14.

In this article, the authors analyze the representation of female and male characters in two television programs that are primarily suited for preschool aged children, Barney and Friends and Teletubbies. In order to support their arguments, the authors referenced a study that was conducted on the two aforementioned shows, which took leadership, appearance, and activity into account when evaluating the genders in both shows. One important fact that the authors gathered from the study was that  Barney and Friends and Teletubbies had relatively equivalent male to female ratios, and both shows contained some elements of counter-stereotypical mannerisms. For instance, in Barney and Friends, the authors noted that Barney was cast as the leader in the show, but he consistently displayed traits that were typically associated with women, such as encouraging cooperation amongst other characters and being compassionate towards others in the show. Also, Tinky Winky, the protagonist in Teletubbies, is male but is often seen carrying a bag, which can be thought of as feminine-like when considering this behavior from a stereotypical standpoint. All in all, the arguments both authors introduce help convey that some shows for children have been breaking the mold of gender bias and instilling the concept of gender equality.

Valiente, Christian and Xeno Rasmusson. “Bucking the Stereotypes: My Little Pony and Challenges to Traditional Gender Roles.” Journal of Psychological Issues in Organizational Culture, vol. 5, no. 4, Jan. 2015, pp. 88-97. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1002/jpoc.21162.

This journal examines the manner in which the animated series My Little Pony challenges generalizations concerning gender roles. To explore this, ten episodes of My Little Pony were viewed, and in each episode, the main characters were all female with the males serving in supporting roles. Additionally, the female characters were also displayed as being authoritative and dominant. As a matter of fact, the journal mentioned how the main characters controlled the weather patterns and celestial bodies.This reference strongly highlighted how the show aims to reverse gender roles and depict female characters in contemporary fashion. Moreover, the journal even went to greater lengths to discuss the impact of the show on its viewers. In its assessment, the journal concluded that the depiction of the characters in the show would help younger viewers mature in their understandings of gender roles in society. This journal provides content that allows readers to gauge how such programming can benefit the outlooks of children and the perceptions they hold of others. It also demonstrates the values that some television shows are beginning to incorporate in their scripts.


Sexism and Sports: An Annotated Bibliography

Katz, Ron. “Cross Gender Representation in Sportscasting.” Forbes, 2015, Forbes.comhttps://www.forbes.com/sites/rkatz/2015/11/28/gross-gender-discrimination-in-sportscasting/#59bcbc71691c.

This article brings to the readers’ attention some of the differing standards that viewers judge men and women sportscasters by. As a result of his research, the author found that male sportscasters tend to be judged by the amount of sports knowledge they have and their speaking ability, while women are judged almost solely on their appearance and apparent “sexiness.” The value of this source is found in the questions that it raised about how people view women in sports media. Due to audiences’ gender stereotypes, women sportscasters struggle to gain credibility in a male-dominated industry. This article also notes how in some professional sports such as football, organizations encourage their employees to interview minority candidates for management positions, but there is nothing like that within today’s sports media landscape due in large part to the lack of pressure to bridge this gap of gender discrimination. While this article makes some very valid points and even references some credible sources of research, it should be noted that it does not have any hard facts within the article. It does however give us a keener insight into the minds of sports audiences.


Madkour, Abraham D. “Women in sports media cite progress, obstacles.” Sports Business Journal, 2017, sportsbusinessdaily.com, https://www.sportsbusinessdaily.com/Journal/Issues/2017/03/06/Opinion/From-The-Executive-Editor.aspx

This article discusses the challenges that women are facing within the sports media landscape. It notes that because it is such a male dominated industry, women have to be twice as prepared and on their game as their male counterparts. Their mistakes seem to carry more backlash and consequences because of their gender. It tells us that women have come a long way in this industry but many times there is a negative reaction towards them based solely on viewer’s perceptions of what an acceptable role in the sports landscape should be for women that totally disregards a woman’s experience and expertise on a subject matter. The value of this article is that it shows us some of the popular opinions towards women sportscasters. We should be mindful, however, that this article is not peer-reviewed and that its sources of information are probably biased on the subject matter due to their lack of objectivity.


Mastro, Dana, et al. “The Wide World of Sports Reporting: The Influence of Gender- and Race-Based Expectations on Evaluations of Sports Reporters.” Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, vol. 89, no. 3, 2012, pp. 458-474. ProQuest, http://prx.library.gatech.edu/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/1036601497?accountid=11107.

This journal article raises the question of how visual framing and content affect how viewers perceive both the message and the reporter. It also discusses how race and gender expectations affect how the audience judges a reporter and whether or not they are seen as competent and credible. It does this through studying the reactions to different newspaper excerpts and by also asking the participants questions in order figure out their preconceived notions regarding gender and sports. This study found that journalists who were of the same race and gender that audiences associated with a sport (ex. women’s gymnastics being seen as a white, female sport) were seen as more credible and a better source of information than their counterparts. This source is a valuable resource because it discusses the impact that intersectionality has on the sports media industry. It also has some relevant data that shows the ratio between gender and sports coverage.


Mudrick, Michael, and Carolyn A. Lin. “Looking on from the Sideline: Perceived Role Congruity of Women Sports Journalists.” Journal of Sports Media, vol. 12, no. 2, 2017, pp. 79-101. ProQuest, http://prx.library.gatech.edu/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/1966844219?accountid=11107.

This article uses college students to study how attractiveness and gender play a role in audience loyalty, and how it impacts the audience’s perception of the expertise and trustworthiness of a sports journalist. The results of this study found that gender-role congruity between reporter and sport type, such as women reporting on female sports, is a major factor in how audiences view the information that they have been given. In addition, many women reporting in sports that are thought of as male appropriate are seen as incongruent and out of place with the image that is being portrayed by this sport. More attractive reporters are also seen as more reliable than unattractive ones. This study is extremely relevant research because it also raises the key point of gender roles within sports media, and how when people do not adhere to those roles they are seen as less credible and less enjoyable to watch by most audiences.


Mudrick, Michael, et al. “Sportscasting Success: Varying Standards may Apply.”Journal of Sports Media, vol. 13, no. 1, 2018, pp. 49-73. ProQuest, http://prx.library.gatech.edu/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/2056814931?accountid=11107.

This article is about a study that was done to test how people compare male and female sportscasters. They had participants watch a basketball debate between a male and female sport show hosts from ESPN’s former show Numbers Never Lie. The researchers looked at four characteristics, expertise, trustworthiness, dynamism, and likeability, and compared the positive and negative comments about both of the show hosts in each category in order to see how people perceive different genders when given a direct comparison between male and female sportscasters. The results from this study showed that the male host received more positive feedback in all the areas except for trustworthiness. He was seen as more dynamic and likable and with more sports expertise than the female host. This source was extremely valuable because it showed how the social role theory, which says women and men are expected to behave in certain ways due to their gender, plays a major role in how sportscasters are evaluated by viewers. It also relates to some of the other research I have found because it confirms how a woman’s likability on television is often directly linked to her appearance.


Weathers, Melinda, et al. “The Tweet Life of Erin and Kirk: A Gendered Analysis of Professional Sports Broadcasters’ Self-Presentation on Twitter.” Journal of Sports Media, vol. 9, no. 2, 2014, pp. 1-24. ProQuest, http://prx.library.gatech.edu/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/1555372574?accountid=11107.

This article discusses a study about social media and the difference that exists between male and female sportscasters presentations of themselves on social media platforms. It looks at the Twitter profiles of a male and female sportscasters and compares their tweets to see the differences that exist between how they portray themselves to the general public. It compared the topics that both journalists tweeted about and the frequency of those tweets. The results of this study showed that their presentations of themselves conformed to the prevailing ideologies and stereotypes that surround the sports media realm. The woman sportscaster was found to tweet more about her personal life and the topics of fashion, family, and events in her day to day life. The male sportscaster, on the other hand, was much more likely to tweet about what was going on in the sports landscape and offer analysis and predictions for the fans. The value of this study is that it shows how easily people fall into the boxes that have been assigned to them, partly because of society’s expectations. It raises an interesting question to ponder what would be the public’s reaction if the gender roles were reversed.

The potential effects of TV on children (Group 2) Annotated Bibliography

Eisenstock, Barbara A. Television as a Source of Career Awareness for Children: Effects of Sex and Sex Role Preferences, University of Southern California, Ann Arbor, 1979. ProQuest, http://prx.library.gatech.edu

Eisenstock’s paper above goes into talks about the discovery of career and career options by children, and the various factors that go into this discovery, as told from a professional research angle (graduate school). Eisenstock focuses on TV as a career discovery tool for children, in part due to its accessibility to anyone. Eisenstock references the common trend for TV of the time (1979) to place women in low-status occupations, such as secretaries and homemakers, and for men to be placed in high-status occupations such as doctors or lawyers. Eisenstock states that the continuation of these traditional sex-roles may be a major factor in the slow acceptance of non-traditional occupations and sex-roles. Eisenstock found that a child’s knowledge of his or her sex role mitigated the effect of traditional TV and that feminine and androgynous identified children reacted much better to the non-traditional work role sexes on TV than the masculine identified children. The idea that TV can both bring down and uplift society through its portrayal of gender is a good starting point for my group’s discussion.


Foust, James C., and Katherine A. Bradshaw. “Something for the Boys: Framing Images of Women in Broadcasting Magazine in the 1950s.” Journalism History, vol. 33, no. 2, 2007, pp. 93-95,97-100. ProQuest, http://prx.library.gatech.edu

In the paper above, Foust and Katherine analyze the presence of women in Broadcasting magazine, a trade magazine associated with the broadcasting and TV industry, and determining in what light women are portrayed. They found that there are four major portrayals of the women in the magazines: women as sex objects or decoration, women as housewives, women displaying stereotypical behaviors, and women as professionals. The positive portrayals of women as professionals was found the be heavily outweighed by the other portrayals, 85 percent as opposed to 12 percent. One prominent example was the “Something for the Boys” section of an edition that only portrayed female models for a two-page spread. This research was done using a random sampling method and coding to analyze the frames of 1950s decade issues. This portrayal of women in Broadcasting publications could have been another reason why women in professional broadcasting roles were very rare in the early years of TV in addition to the already high barrier to entry for women in a male dominated industry.


Hoffner, Cynthia, and Martha Buchanan. “Young Adults’ Wishful Identification with Television Characters: The Role of Perceived Similarity and Character Attributes.” Media Psychology, vol. 7, no. 4, 2005, pp. 325-351. ProQuest, http://prx.library.gatech.edu

The above paper tried to answer the question of the factors that go into the perceptions of young adults’ wishful identification, that is the desire to be like or act like a character. They organized a list of perceived character attributes (smart, successful, attractive, funny, violent, and admired) and determined the most wishfully identified with character traits. They found that males tended to want to be like male characters that they perceived as successful, intelligent, and violent, whereas women identified with female characters that were perceived as successful, intelligent, attractive, and admired. The above research helps to determine a difference between older audiences preferred traits and the genders that preferred them. The knowledge that women liked attractive and admired characters versus men liking more violent characters can help to focus in my thoughts on what to look for in a sample of children’s TV shows’ gendered characters; violence in male characters and attractiveness and admiration for female characters.


Liben, Lynn S., and Rebecca S. Bigler. “The Developmental Course of Gender Differentiation: Conceptualizing, Measuring, and Evaluating Constructs and Pathways.” Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, vol. 67, no. 2, 2002, pp. 1-147. ProQuest, http://prx.library.gatech.edu

Liben and Rebecca set out to determine how exactly gender differentiation unfolds to stop a classic situation of gender stereotyping possibly limiting individual expression. They state that gender differentiation might come about from consumption of general ideas about specific concepts (toys, jobs, etc.) and then be applied to other various aspects (including themselves). They then also say that the same process can happen, but the child instead focuses on themselves to determine their ideas. This could be shown simply through two scenarios, one where a male child likes a toy, and using their identity, they identify that toy as male toy, and another where a male child identifies that toy as male, and then plays with it, identifying himself as a male. This understanding of some possible gender differentiation ideas can help to understand to what extent TV and culture has on gender and gender identity, serving a purpose for my research and developing my understanding.


Miller, M. M., and Byron Reeves. “Dramatic TV Content and Children’s Sex Role Stereotypes.” Journal of Broadcasting, vol. 20, no. 1, 1976, pp. 35-50. ProQuest, http://prx.library.gatech.edu/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/60878348?accountid=11107.

In the above paper, Miller and Byron asked the question of whether the portrayal of women in TV in non-traditional occupations would make a child (3rd – 6th grade) say that the non-stereotypical role was fitting for women. The findings showed that in 5 out of 6 cases, children who were exposed to non-stereotypical in TV would say that the role seen was fitting for girls. They found that, in general, TV causes sex-role stereotyping in children, but this could be reversed, and TV could become a factor in helping society break down these sex-role stereotypes. This study helps to further back the main idea that children’s TV can and will affect their view on other people and genders. (and the roles associated with them) The further backing helps to both strengthen the argument of this paper, but also strengthen the argument of any other papers that dealt with TV and children’s thoughts on gender roles.


Pila, Sarah C. The “Good Girls”: Exploring Features of Female Characters in Children’s Animated Television, Tufts University, Ann Arbor, 2015. ProQuest, http://prx.library.gatech.edu

Sarah begins the paper by stating a goal of determining how animated children’s (ages 6 – 12) cartoons portray women in general. Sarah mentions that there could be possible unknown effects of children being exposed to cartoons that portray women in a specific way. Generally, Sarah found that animated TV portrays twice as many male characters when compared to female characters, and that female conversations are more stereotypical in educational TV. Sarah’s extensive usage of other research and relating to the social cognitive theory of children’s development helps to ground and explain her thought processes clearly. Sarah states that her findings are that women are portrayed less and that they tend to be portrayed as more youthful and ‘attractive’ than the male characters. If we accept that children practice social learning, this may lead us to understand why children tend to simply fall into the gender dichotomy that is classically portrayed, girl actions and boy actions, and no mingling of the two.

Annotated Bibliography

Barr, Johanna. “Look Who’s Still Talking the Most in Movies: White Men.” The New York Times, 4 Aug. 2017, https://www.nytimes.com/2017/08/04/arts/diversity-films-women-race.html. Accessed 20 Sept 2018.
The article shows that despite more high profile movies with women as major characters, representation for women and minorities as main characters outside traditional or stereotyped roles is limited. Studies show that even including film scripts with women as major characters male characters spoke in far larger quantities in comparison to women. In addition, dialogue for women tended to be more emotional and more centered on family values. Stereotypes for minorities were also present in film scripts. For example, there were more swear words in scripts for black characters. At the end of the article, the author urges audiences to not be fooled by higher profile cases like Wonder Woman and Girls Night and see that the larger trend has stayed stagnant for many groups. Although not directly related to television, the article highlights gender and minority representation disparities despite rising high profile representation. I thought it was a good point that she brought up about not being misled by one or two high profile productions that go against the norm and thinking that the long stagnant industry is changing.

Chira, Susan. “A New Rating for TV and Movies Tries to Combat Gender Stereotypes.” The New York Times, 20 June. 2017, https://www.nytimes.com/2017/06/20/arts/common-sense-media-ratings-gender.html. Accessed 19 Sept 2018.
The author describes a new rating system made by Common Sense Media to access gender representation in television and media. Common Sense Media evaluated television and movies on a spectrum evaluating whether the media defies gender stereotypes – showing women in STEM fields like Temperance Brennan in Bones or in unconventional roles like Gal Gadot’s Diana in Wonder Woman. The new system by Common Sense Media is focused more on the roles that the women play not necessarily the numbers of gender representation. For example, Bridesmaids was not labeled as “positive gender representation” despite its positive impact on the media industry for women. This article is important because it provides information about a rating system that looks to reward positive gender representations, in some ways a more developed Bechdel test. This rating system could be used our research to evaluate television shows. It also highlights a growing demand for shows combating gender stereotypes.

Collins, Rebecca L. “Content Analysis of Gender Roles in Media: Where are we Now and Where should we Go?” Sex Roles, vol. 64, no. 3-4, 2011, pp. 290-298. ProQuest, http://prx.library.gatech.edu/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/850508348?accountid=11107, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11199-010-9929-5.
Collins talks about quantitative research done on gender roles in media. She finds that an there is an overwhelming amount of research done that shows that women are underrepresented in all forms of media and when they are, they are hypersexualized or are portrayed as sexual objects. Women in all forms are usually underrepresented as well. For example, women who are not thin and older are even more underrepresented than the cohort as a whole. Collins also highlights how broader gender stereotypes are in effect across all media. Women are pushed into gender stereotyped roles in media, portraying the housewife or traditionally female jobs like the secretary. In addition, Collins also considers the effects of media on society’s perception; she brings up the Don’t Ask Don’t Tell rule, where media conversation focused significantly more on gay men rather than lesbian women, even though the number of both groups in the army were relatively the same. This article is important because it shows how gender representation in media can have an affect on public perception of subjects, even policy issues. It also further highlights the underrepresentation of a diverse group of women in non-stereotyped roles.

Pasztor, Sabrina K. “The Gendered World of Work in TV Programming and the Media Industry.” Media Report to Women, vol. 43, no. 1, 2015, pp. 12-20. ProQuest, http://prx.library.gatech.edu/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/1661077194?accountid=11107.
In the article, Pasztor analyzes the portrayal of women in television over time. The 1960s showed mostly upper to middle class white women in the domestic sphere, and any representation of the “working woman” was usually single and looking to get married. The 70s showed a response to the second wave of feminism, but women in working roles tended to be hipersexualized. 80s television represented women in the workforce but usually in low level positions. The 90s responded to 3rd wave feminism with intersectionality and “liberated” females across all spectrums. Across all decades there was slight increase in gender representations but mostly focused on young women. Pasztor then goes on to show that representation behind the scenes influence representation on screen. This article is valuable in that it highlights how representation of women in the workforce has changed over time due to external factors in society and how television can also affect society. One important point that Pasztor bring up is the lack of representation for older women outside of their twenties in television.

Scovell, Nell. “The ‘Golden Age for Women in TV’ Is Actually a Rerun.”The New York Times, 12 Sept. 2015, https://www.nytimes.com/2015/09/13/opinion/sunday/the-golden-age-for-women-in-tv-is-actually-a-rerun.html. Accessed 20 Sept 2018.
In this article, Scovell talks about how people perceive this era to be the “Golden Age for Women in TV.” Scovell combats this with the period in 1990 with shows like Murphy Brown and Golden Girls. Scovell proclaims that this is an era that has returned – the prominence of popular, award winning tv shows that seem to turn the tide on unbalanced gender representation.  The article is important because it highlights and supplements other articles that talk about high profile productions led by women that go against traditional gender representations. It suggests that the gender imbalance on TV is more of a circuitous route that will not be changed without a persistent fight. The article shows that modern television is not unique in its television portrayal of women and that the gender imbalance is a continuous struggle that is not being very well addressed in the past decade since the last “Golden Age” for women in media.

Smith, Brittany. Gender Representation and Occupational Portrayals in Primetime Television, University of Arkansas, Ann Arbor, 2016. ProQuest, http://prx.library.gatech.edu/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/1822219320?accountid=11107.
Smith cities studies on primetime shows airing on ABC, CBS, NBC, Fox and The CW, focusing on gender representation and the portrayal of both genders and how it blends in with social cognitive theory. Smith also references research that shows that portrayals of gender roles on television can influence and skew the perceptions of women and men on viewers of television. Findings show that women are likely to not play major characters, and if they do, they stay out of professional jobs and are most likely not married. There is always a tradeoff in between marriage and family and jobs in gender portrayal. In all her studies, the CW had the smallest difference in gender representation, then NBC, then Fox, then ABC, and then CBS. ABC had the highest females in professional jobs, and CBS had the highest in blue collar. Her research shows that older tv networks have more women in professional jobs. This article is very important because it discusses the impact of tv networks on gender representation and portrayal, something that could be looked at in our own respective research projects. In addition, Smith highlights blue collar vs professional jobs in representation as well as marriage as a factor that affects such roles. It also bring to light how and why representation affects society.

The Female Companions of Doctor Who and Their Reflections of Feminist Trends: Annotated Bibliography

  1. Perryman, Neil. “Doctor Who and the Convergence of Media.” Convergence, Sage Publications. 1 Feb 2008. Web. 20 Sep 2018.


This source argues that while Doctor Who has crossed over multiple television shows successfully and in a way that enriches the world of Doctor Who, it is ultimately impossible to truly combine all three Doctor Who universe shows (Doctor Who, Torchwood, The Sarah Jane Adventures), particularly because of their differences in maturity level of content. This article is valuable because in its description of The Sarah Jane Adventures (which focuses on a former female companion of the Doctor) are revealing as to how her character was treated on the original show, and it will provide useful evidence when discussing how the figure of the female companion has changed over the years of Doctor Who.


  1. Jowett, Lorna. “The Girls Who Waited? Female Companions and Gender in Doctor Who.” Manchester University Press, Sage Journals. 1 Apr 2014. Web. 20 Sep 2018.


This article argues that while the role of the female companion in Doctor Who has always had sexist notes and stories, the last few years of Doctor Who have especially unempowered the women in that role in comparison to earlier companions, despite the fact that the most recent female companions are bolder and more confident (classic “strong woman” traits) than before. This source is valuable because it gives an overview of the series’ lineup of female companions and gives a deep analysis of how seemingly modern and empowered women characters can fall into sexist tropes just as easily as women characters from fifty years ago.


  1. Pool, Landon Garrett. “”Girls” in Time and Space: A Feminist Analysis of the Companions of “Doctor Who” from 1963–1975.” Tarleton State University, ProQuest Dissertations Publishing. Aug 2015. Web. 20 Sep 2018.


This source argues that, because of Doctor Who’s record-breaking longevity, the show functions as a viewing point for feminism through the years and its interactions with pop culture through analysis of the female companions. This article is valuable because its use of the female companions as reflections of contemporary feminist trends matches exactly with my group’s research topic, and it includes detail about early companions, which is difficult to find. It is also very useful because it is written in a more understandable and less esoteric style, which is more accessible to me and my group and will help us more than an article filled with technical jargon.


  1. McCullagh, Cassie. “The Doctor’s Leading Ladies.” Australian Broadcasting Corporation, n.p. 18 Nov 2013. Web. 20 Sep 2018.


This article argues that Sarah Jane Smith was the first truly feminist female companion of the Doctor, and that the earlier Doctors’ lack of sexuality was what allowed his companions to be empowered women as compared the contemporary Bond Girls who were given no agency or allowed to be anything outside of their relationship with Bond. This source is valuable because it provides a look into how the early female companions functioned as mirrors of the flow and ebb of the feminist movement in Western culture, and what exactly allowed them to reflect feminist trends when so many other female characters could not.


  1. “Susan Foreman (Carol Ann Ford).” British Broadcasting Corporation, n.p. 24 Sep 2014. Web. 20 Sep 2018.


This article provides a short biography of the character Susan Foreman, the first female companion on Doctor Who. This source is useful because it mentions Susan’s more feminist traits (like her unusual intelligence that she took no pains to hide), but also describes her sadly trite ending of being abandoned by the Doctor so that she could pursue a relationship with a man. This article is a great representation of the feminist and sexist writing that coexisted in early Doctor Who, and will act as a way to connect the show and feminist trends of the time at which her character was airing.


  1. Moreland, Alex. “Doctor Who Explainer – Who is Susan Foreman, and is She Coming Back to the Show?.” Yahoo! News, n.p. 7 May 2017.


This article argues that, due to a few hints strewn through the new series, there is a strong possibility of Susan Foreman’s character returning to Doctor Who. This article is useful because it goes more into depth about her relationship with the Doctor than the previous article, revealing the more paternalistic approach the Doctor had with his earlier companions and how they functioned more as his pupils than his equals.


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