Source 1: Zemach, Tamar and Akiba A. Cohen. “Perception of Gender Equality on Television and in Social Reality.” Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, vol. 30, no. 4, Fall86, pp. 427-444. EBSCOhost,

‘Perception of Gender Equality on Television and in Social Reality.’ ‘This study examined the differential perceptions of men and women as they appear on television as an example of symbolic reality and the way they are perceived in social reality.’ The article talks about a few researches that claim the same fact: The Television is behind the real society. This is because television tends to be more traditional (men with more independence and power than women) because the big mass that watches television feels more represented by this format of ‘roles’ that each gender has. This should be changed, and as the research assumes, if we change the way that we represent our roles on television, the faster we are going to assimilate equality in the real world. But, as Television are always behind the real society, men are still being shown occupying more ‘respectful’ jobs than women do.

This article will be useful as we are going to talk about how society also makes a difference when we are talking about differences in representation roles on Television. The TV is based on concepts that we are living in.

Source 2:  Sink, Alexander and Dana Mastro. “Depictions of Gender on Primetime Television: A Quantitative Content Analysis.” Mass Communication & Society, vol. 20, no. 1, Jan/Feb2017, pp. 3-22. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1080/15205436.2016.1212243.

‘Depictions of Gender on Primetime Television: A Quantitative Content Analysis.’ It analyzes the different representation of men and women on Primetime Television. A study looked through 89 different programs and 1,254 characters were identified. This study showed how genders are seen and depicted to society on Primetime television. This also explains that women did not hit the ‘golden age’ because we have changed a lot compared to past decades, men are shown as the more dominant gender in society than women still.

A lot of resources were used to analyze the difference on Primetime television. This article is worth reading because it is useful, entertaining, and easy to read. Even with all these changes in gender representation that we have been through, we still have a ‘discrimination’ against women representing higher roles in society on tv programs. Due to this rejection, women are still be seeing as inferior compared with men.

Source 3:  FURNHAM, ADRIAN and STEPHANIE PALTZER. “The Portrayal of Men and Women in Television Advertisements: An Updated Review of 30 Studies Published since 2000.” Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, vol. 51, no. 3, June 2010, pp. 216-236. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1111/j.1467-9450.2009.00772.x

‘The portrayal of men and women in television advertisements: An updated review of 30 studies published since 2000.’ This article studied the sex roles stereotype in television commercials, from reviewed 30 papers over 20 countries around the world. Besides the different representations related with age, ethnic, and gender, the main focus of this article is to show how men and women are portrayed differently on television advertisements. It is due to a change in our real society. Advertisements that were effective a few years ago are not good enough for our today’s society. The article also showed some studies proving that sex representation and ‘aggressive’ humor do not work as most people think.

This article is great because we can analyze how this stereotype have been changed from past years until now. It also says that some advertisements are pre-defined for  men or predefined for women because they tend to be the consumers of certain products.

Source 4:  Kircher, J. C. (2007). Another look at gender roles in prime -time television (Order No. 3289592). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses A&I; ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Full Text. (304818535). Retrieved from

‘Another look at gender roles in prime -time television.’ This article is an ‘update’ of ‘Depictions of Gender on Primetime Television: A Quantitative Content Analysis.’ Both articles talk about how men and women are represented, how they are portrayed and how people see this pre-defined roles for each gender on Primetime Television. In this specific article 2,968 scenes and 24,994 interactions of male and female characters in the scenes were implied. This studied also affirms that role on Primetime Television have not changed much. Men still represent the traditional and more powerful position in comparison with women. Beside men have been doing more socio-emotional behaviors, they are still doing more task-oriented and directive behaviors. ‘Thus, men continue to be presented in primarily traditional male gender roles.’

Showing how our Primetime television still divided and defined by the traditional society, this article will be interesting to debate. Men changing for ‘women’s’ roles and still being represented as more powerful than women through the years can be a good topic to be discussed.

Source 5:  Price, C. J., & Wulff, S. S. (2005). Does sex make a difference? job satisfaction of television network news correspondents. Women’s Studies in Communication, 28(2), 207-234. Retrieved from

‘Does Sex Make a Difference? Job Satisfaction of Television Network News Correspondents.’ This article shows the difference of women satisfactory, women salary, and how women are being welcome on Television Network compared with men. The study reveal that: ‘women are significantly younger, and have fewer years of service at one network and total years in network news than do men.’ Besides we still have men predominance in the Television network, studies affirm that it has been changed. ‘In 2002, all stations in the top 25 markets had women on their news staffs. Women made up 39% of the news workforce, including 26% of news directors, 33% of assistant news directors, 50% of executive producers, 64% of news producers, 57% of news anchors and 58% of news reporters (Papper & Gerhard, 2002).’

This study can be easily used for us. The different age of entry and the difference permanency in a television company are numbers that can be debated. It is also an interesting article because claims that women are more unsatisfied than men about their work environment.

Source 6: Corfield, J. (2017). Network vs. netflix: A comparative content analysis of demographics across prime-time television and netflix original programming (Order No. 10259826). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses A&I; ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Full Text. (1927181818). Retrieved from

‘Network vs. Netflix: A Comparative Content Analysis of Demographics Across Prime-Time Television and Netflix Original Programming.’ This article talks about women and men roles on Television and Netflix. It also talks about black, homosexual people.

This article is really interesting for our research because it has a lot of numbers claiming the huge and indiscriminate difference between sex and race. One more thing that make this article attractive was that it also mention Netflix researches (as our class talk a lot about TV shows, I thought this one would be interesting). The number of characters who held power on Primetime TV and Netflix are way unequal: ‘Of the total number of characters who held power in prime-time television, only 26.6% were female; almost three times fewer than the 73.4% of male characters. The Netflix platform yielded an even greater number of male characters that held power with 79.6%, however, only 20.4% of characters with power were female.’