Works Cited

Hardin, Marie, and Jennifer D. Greer. “The Influence of Gender-Role Socialization, Media useand Sports Participation on Perceptions of Gender-Appropriate Sports.” Journal of Sport Behavior, vol. 32, no. 2, 2009, pp. 207-226. ProQuest, /loginurl= docview/215875384?accountid=11107.

This study attempts to understand how sports in U.S. society are viewed taking into consideration  gender norms. This study examines the relationship between media, sports participation, and ‘gender role socialization’ with the typing of sports as masculine or feminine by utilizing a survey of 340 college students. The study also brings in outside research to provide a statistical representation on sports media coverage, in particular during the Olympics. It argues that although these factors impact ‘typing’ for some sports to an extent the overall findings demonstrate that ‘traditional gender-typing’ of sports is inelastic. Although this source is not directly studying women in the media it is valuable because it looks at the psychological aspect of social learning theory and gender norms- within media- on its viewers. This is important to our research because it conveys implications of gender representation in sports media on its audience and society in general, allowing us to show how our research itself is important.


This source is a newspaper article from the US Fed News Service. It describes a panel discussion at the University of Indiana made in order to discuss issues of gender in sports media. In particular, the discussion is aimed to look into the changing roles of women in sports media careers as well as the challenges they face. The panel includes Shelly Smith who works for ESPN and is able to attest to the gender specific controversies from the network. The discussion also covers the very publicized sexual harassment of Ines Sainz, a reporter for Mexico’s TV Azteca. This source is valuable to my groups research because it gives descriptive first person insight into the challenges and scandal’s faced by women in sports media careers  This newspaper source gives an important if not the most important perspective on these issues, women in the field themselves. The article will allow us to point at specific examples of harassment and analyze with other sources what this means for women in sports media and women in general.


Hardin, Marie, and Stacie Shain. “Female Sports Journalists: Are we there Yet? ‘no’.” Newspaper Research Journal, vol. 26, no. 4, 2005, pp. 22-35. ProQuest,

This source is a newspaper research journal from 2005 investigating on the job discrimination and lack of reward felt by women in sport media. The source includes information on the still small amount of women in the field even 30 years after Title IX opened doors for women to ‘write sports’. The journal also discusses how not only are their not a lot of women but most never see higher up or management positions even after long periods of time in the field. The journal is a literature review which includes analysis of several surveys about discrimination and harassment in the sports media field that took place over the 90’s. Even though this source is not extremely recent, it is valuable because it will show us insight into how the discrimination and harassment has or has not changed over the recent decades when compared to more recent statistics and sources.


6, 2017 March. “Women in Sports Media Cite Progress, Obstacles.” Sports Business Journal, 6 Mar. 2017, Opinion/From-The- Executive-Editor.aspx.

This source is a journal article from Sports Business Journal that discusses the still-evident challenges that women face in sports media. The article is from the perspective of a man, Abraham Madkour, and gives a look into the more recent statistics of women in sports media as well as commending the job of many ESPN women sportscasters. The article brings the audience’s attention towards to underrepresentation of women in sport media careers as well as making claims toward the validity of their opinions. The fact that a white man has to establish these thoughts in order for them to gain attention and validation in the year 2017 portrays a lot of how we still see women in these fields despite what the author is trying to point out. This source is valuable because it gives more recent statistics and can be used to analyze the current social dynamic surrounding the issue.


Dicardo, Julie. “Ugly Truth about Women in Sports and Social Media.” Sports Illustrated, 27 Sept. 2015, vile-remarks-women-sports-journalists.

This source is a Sports Illustrated article written by a female sports newscaster about the harassment she recieves on social media, specifically Twitter. She discusses the hyper-masculine culture of sports online that causes many men to become extremely defensive on social media platforms where they feel they can voice their offensive opinions with no repercussions. She gives specific examples of instincts where she received vulgar tweets towards herself for simply doing her job. This article also gives great first hand insight into the social dynamic surrounding women in sports media and the heat they get which men do not. This article is valuable because it is written by a female sports journalist about her struggles specifically while giving good examples on the harassment she faces. Likewise, it can be used to draw conclusions about the masculine culture of sports based on how they treat women in the field, showing the repercussions of the masculine sports culture on women.


Spain, Sarah. “Women in Sports Media Shouldn’t Have to ‘Ignore’ Abuse.” ESPN, ESPN InternetVentures, 28 Apr. 2016, article/15412369/women-sports-media-ignore-abuse.

This source is an ESPN article that also delves into the treatment of women sportscasters on social media. The article is written by a Sarah Spain, an ESPN sports columnist with experience into the harassment that women face in sports media careers. The online article also includes a video that includes men reading harsh and vulgar tweets to the women sportscasters they are directed at. The video is a powerful social experiment that emphasizes how the social media can enhance the effects of verbal abuse towards women in general and in sports media. When the men read the tweets out loud it is very emotional and conveys just how much abuse women have to overcome to do their job. This source is valuable because it demonstrates how discrimination to women in this field have faced discrimination ongoing for decades with little end in sight. It also can be used to analyze the culture surrounding gender and sports.

Sierra Villarreal