Jason – https://search.proquest.com/pqrl/docview/1283435592/6CE5A3E0C1664C19PQ/6?accountid=11107
Lips, Hilary M. “The Gender Pay Gap: Challenging the Rationalizations. Perceived Equity, Discrimination, and the Limits of Human Capital Models.” Sex Roles, vol. 68, no. 3-4, 2012, pp. 169–185., doi:10.1007/s11199-012-0165-z.
This article helps to explore the common rationalizing of the pay gap by criticizing the limitations of the human capital model, which is often cited in the defense of perceived pay equity in the labor market today. By demonstrating how the supposed logical investment of companies into labor ignores critical factors such as gendered educational paths, gaps in career continuity due to family reasons, and general associations between gender and job prestige. The article calls research from several sources that collect data on percentages of women in various career fields to establish a tendency towards a certain type of sex based segregation towards women in the job market as well as sex based segregation within the same career or company. This article discusses mostly wage discrimination within the skills labor market rather than in the talent and creativity labor market yet it addresses the key point of assigning different jobs within the same career field. The role of women within the same television show is often determined by the writer and thus even though women and men are technically in the same career, they are still occupying separate roles within the same career field. In this nature, the article draws attention to important distinctions between explicit wage discrimination and implicit segregation of a career field into gendered roles.
Jason – https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/08838151.2018.1484292?scroll=top&needAccess=true
Finneman, Teri, and Joy Jenkins. “Sexism on the Set: Gendered Expectations of TV Broadcasters in a Social Media World.” Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, vol. 62, no. 3, 2018, pp. 479–494., doi:10.1080/08838151.2018.1484292.
This article seeks to evaluate the extent to which gendered expectations affect the careers of television journalists and other women in the field of news broadcasting. The article draws upon polls of women in broadcasting and examples of social media harassment targeted towards women in broadcasting. The author points out that the accessibility of social media allows for unexpected interaction between broadcasters and viewers that grants a certain bonus of anonymity towards the average viewer. Thus the birth of the age of social media allows for much more publicly available proof of the discrimination felt by women in broadcasting. This article provides not only anecdotal evidence to the large presence of discrimination in the television business but rather establishes a set of characteristics that women are judged by according to the common viewer, which sheds light on how women can be perceived as less effective by a company or by a producer. While this does not in itself provide evidence of a wage gap it gives indicators into where wage gaps might be more obvious or some proximate cause as to wage disparities in the broadcasting industry.
Olen, Helaine. “Mind the Gender Gap: How to ensure your business pays workers fairly.” Inc., June 2018, p. 56. Contemporary Women’s Issues, http://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/A541288580/CWI?u=gainstoftech&sid=CWI&xid=e387a6ee. Accessed 19 Sept. 2018.
This article provides a legitimate process for reducing the wage discrimination within an organization in a manner that ensures fair pay for all employees regardless of gender. This argument highlights the benefits of fair pay, such as increased worker productivity and a higher worker retention rate. The author advocates for making organizational flow charts to determine the actual workload carried out by each worker so as to determine actual revenue generated compared to individual company investment in a worker. The author also argues that a one time pay audit and correction will not solve a company’s long term trends of pay inequality. This article provides not just an analysis into the machinations of pay inequality, but rather it provides a ray of hope in granting a seemingly effective manner to rectify pay inequality for large corporations at multiple levels in organization. Thus this method provides some general guideline into how a broadcasting corporation could analyze the actual work done by workers so as to rectify the wage inequality in hollywood.
Jason – http://go.galegroup.com/ps/retrieve.do?tabID=T003&resultListType=RESULT_LIST&searchResultsType=SingleTab&searchType=SubjectGuideForm¤tPosition=9&docId=GALE%7CA521094254&docType=Article&sort=Relevance&contentSegment=&prodId=CWI&subjectParam=Q1&contentSet=GALE%7CA521094254&searchId=R1&userGroupName=gainstoftech&inPS=true&displaySubject=Employment+discrimination&subjectAction=VIEW_SUBDIVISIONS&searchQueryId=Q1
Mair, Liz. “Training Won’t Prevent Sexual Harassment, Hiring Women Will.” The Report, from U.S. News & World Report, 29 Dec. 2017. Contemporary Women’s Issues, http://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/A521094254/CWI?u=gainstoftech&sid=CWI&xid=7f97283e. Accessed 19 Sept. 2018.
This article focuses on the failures of sexual harassment training in corporations and instead analyzes the reduction of sexual harassment as the proportion of women to men within a company increases. The article cites specific companies that have been recently litigated for sexual discrimination and harassment prevalent in the workplace and makes the conclusion that these companies, despite having strong sexual harassment awareness programs, have achieved little in the way of reduced harassment. The author argues that the only surefire method of removing discrimination from a workplace is to employ more women at all levels of organization to prevent unwanted sexual advances from men. This article aims at a specific deficiency that is only slowing being removed from the television industry: the lack of women in positions of power. Recently as a part of the #metoo movement, several large names in entertainment have faced consequence for their mistreatment of women, yet due to the lack of women employed in positions of power in hollywood, the situation has barely seen any true level of resolution.
Jason – https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0144818816300497?via%3Dihub
Hanssen, F. Andrew, and Robert K. Fleck. “Persistence and Change in Age-Specific Gender Gaps: Hollywood Actors from the Silent Era Onward.” SSRN Electronic Journal, vol. 48, 26 Aug. 2016, pp. 36–49., doi:10.2139/ssrn.2169573.
This article examines the gender gaps present in specific age groups throughout different eras of hollywood history. Through its analysis of employment in the film industry from the 1920’s through 2011, it reveals that on average women were employed less in film and were younger than the average male actor throughout nearly all years in this span. The data also shows a consistent employment of males in both leading and credited roles in movies over this span with neither growth nor decline of women roles throughout the 91 year span of the data. This data however only includes the proportion and ages of men and women employed in the film industry and does not contain data related to wages or other forms of inequality within the film career field. This article helps to notate specific differences in the optimum age and proportion of genders in the film industry and helps to establishes almost a constant proportion of male leading actors and female leading actors as well as male credited actors and female credited actors. The implied quota here implies more competition between women for jobs in acting assuming a near equal amount of actors and actresses, which could suggest possible mechanism for unequal pay between men and women.
Rhode, Deborah L. “The subtle side of sexism.” Columbia Journal of Gender and Law, vol. 16, no. 3, 2007, p. 613+. Contemporary Women’s Issues, http://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/A172777358/CWI?u=gainstoftech&sid=CWI&xid=d4a1271f. Accessed 19 Sept. 2018.
This article makes an argument for a new, more prevalent vehicle for sex based discrimination, differentiating between conscious hatred towards women breaking from their socially expected norms and a subtle social expectation for how women should behave, thus aiming at a less perceivable yet equally dangerous form of discrimination that harms women today. The author argues that since women are seen more frequently in positions of power in the US today that people look less at statistical trends in women employment which leads some to the perception that women are treated equally as men in our society. However statistics still point out that women in positions of power are still much less common than men and that women in positions of power must come off as masculine and effective rather than feminine in any way. This applies to our research prompt because subtle sexism could never be more prevalent than in television, with shows often portraying depictions of ideal lifestyles for all sorts of subcultures in American society. It is realistic to believe that certain subtle sexist beliefs and expectations could greatly influence the directions that these shows would go in.